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Husbandry Documents

Manchester MuseumThis page includes a wide range of articles related to various aspects of amphibian husbandry. You can search for specific words within the title, author and description fields by using the Search field in the menu bar at the top of this page.

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  • Icon of Amphibian Action Plans Amphibian Action Plans (15 files)
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  • Icon of Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home (4 files)
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  • Icon of Document Templates Document Templates (5 files)
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  • Icon of Enclosures Enclosures (6 files)
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  • Icon of Feeding and Nutrition Feeding and Nutrition (22 files)
    • Icon of A Zoo-Wide Evaluation Into the Current Feeder Insect Supplementation Program at the Brookfield Zoo A Zoo-Wide Evaluation Into the Current Feeder Insect Supplementation Program at the Brookfield Zoo (140.9 KB)
      Commercially raised insects are an important food source for captive animals. For those animals that are purely insectivorous, the nutrient concentrations of the food source are vitally important for the health and welfare of the animal, particularly the Ca to P ratio. In the summer of 2002, a zoo-wide evaluation of the current methods of insect supplementation was conducted at the Brookfield Zoo.
      Author:Roy D. McClements BS, Barbara A. Lintzenich MS, and Jennifer Boardman
      Version:AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, 2003
      Language:English

    • Icon of Amphibian calcium metabolism Amphibian calcium metabolism (134.9 KB)
      Calcium is present in amphibian blood at a concentration similar to that in other vertebrates, about 1–2mmol. The fraction of free calcium in amphibians is lower than that in other tetrapod vertebrates because about 50% of the plasma Ca is bound to plasma proteins and perhaps other molecules. There are a number of endocrine and other humoral factors that appear to be involved in amphibian calcium metabolism. These include parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, vitamin D and prolactin.
      Author:Daniel F. Stiffler, California State Polytechnic University
      Version:J. exp. Biol. 184 , 47–61 (1993)
      Language:English

    • Icon of Amphibian diet and nutrition Amphibian diet and nutrition (40.2 KB)
      Amphibians are a very diverse group of vertebrates; however, in general their feeding is opportunistic with food up to gape width being ingested. Amphibians such as frogs and toads only target moving prey and prefer elongated prey such as crickets or insect larvae that move across their field of vision. However, many aquatic amphibians will target food by scent and will consume inert food.
      Author:Robert K. Browne, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Belgium
      Version:2009
      Language:English

    • Icon of Amphibian Nutrition Amphibian Nutrition (40.2 KB)
      Author:Allan Pessier, Zoological Society of San Diego
      Version:AZA Amphibian Biology,Conservation and Management Course.
      Language:English

    • Icon of Breeding house flies Breeding house flies (418.6 KB)
      House flies can be surprisingly easy and smell-free to culture for a food source.
      Language:English

    • Icon of Cricket species vary in gut loading capacity: Implications for delivery of carotenoids to amphibians Cricket species vary in gut loading capacity: Implications for delivery of carotenoids to amphibians (1.6 MB)
      There are a very limited number of commercially available invertebrates used as prey items for captive insectivores. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that most feeder invertebrates are of poor nutritional quality. Captive insectivores may therefore be prone to diseases related to nutritional inadequacies. Prey species may be fed on specific nutrients that are required in the insectivore diet. This is termed ‘Gut-loading’, and is often used to improve the quality of feeder invertebrates.
      Author:V. Ogilvy, A.L. Fidgett, D. Sherriff and R.F. Preziosi
      Version:IZW poster, 2009
      Language:English

    • Icon of Directions for making fly food Directions for making fly food (76.7 KB)
      Author:R. Mancilla, S. Yee, & M. Andres
      Version:2003
      Language:English

    • Icon of EAZA Management Guideline Manual for Invertebrate Live Food Species EAZA Management Guideline Manual for Invertebrate Live Food Species (799.6 KB)
      This manual has been designed to assist those concerned with the good management of invertebrate species destined as a captive live food resource, especially, but not exclusively, in zoos and aquaria. These guidelines cover the breeding and rearing methods for twenty three invertebrate species with supplementary information on invertebrate health and nutritional elements.
      Author:(Eds) Warren Spencer and Jenny Spencer, Bristol Zoo Gardens
      Version:EAZA 2006
      Language:English

    • Icon of EVACC Nutrition Protocol EVACC Nutrition Protocol (197.9 KB)
      Author:Eric Baitchman
      Version:EVACC Veterinary Protocols Sep 2008
      Language:English

    • Icon of Feeding Captive Insectivorous Animals: Nutritional Aspects of Insects as Food Feeding Captive Insectivorous Animals: Nutritional Aspects of Insects as Food (90.3 KB)
      Many captive animals will consume invertebrates, live or dead, but it is often necessary to offer live invertebrates (primarily insects) to a variety of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and small mammals. To successfully manage captive insectivorous species, data on nutritional composition of invertebrate prey are especially important. Since live insects may be the only food offered to some species, nutritional deficiencies can quickly arise if the nutrient levels in the live prey are imbalanced.
      Author:Joni B. Bernard and Mary E. Allen
      Version:AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook (1997)
      Language:English

    • Icon of Hypovitiminosis A in a Captive Collection of Amphibians Hypovitiminosis A in a Captive Collection of Amphibians (129.2 KB)
      Hypovitiminosis A is a disease of malnutrition or dysnutrition. There have been references to this disease for thousands of years and the ancient Egyptians treated xerophthalmia (night blindness) with liver from cattle or poultry that is rich in vitamin A. Today hypovitaminosis A is routinely diagnosed in humans, domestic livestock, and recently with more regularity in captive amphibian species.
      Author:Gregory J. Fleming and Eduardo V. Valdes, Disney’s Animal Programs
      Language:English

    • Icon of Leaping forward in amphibian health and nutrition Leaping forward in amphibian health and nutrition (94.3 KB)
      The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the Disney’s Animal Kingdom Workshop on “Ex situ Amphibian Medicine and Nutrition” identified a critical need to design and implement approaches that will facilitate the assessment and evaluation of factors impacting amphibian health. In this manuscript, we describe and summarize the outcomes of this workshop with regards (a) the identified gaps in knowledge, (b) identified priorities for closing these gaps, and (c) compile a list of actions to address these priorities.
      Author:Francisco Olea-Popelka, Gina M. Ferrie, Cheryl Morris, Allan P. Pessier, Kristine Schad, M. Andrew Stamper, Ron Gagliardo, Elizabeth Koutsos, and Eduardo V. Valdes
      Version:Zoo Biology 9999 : 1 – 6 (2014)
      Language:English

    • Icon of Live Feed Nutritional Supplementation Live Feed Nutritional Supplementation (236.2 KB)
      Adequate nutrition of amphibians ensures;
      • rapid growth and normal development
      • successful reproduction
      • the production of fit and healthy offspring
      • health and low mortality rate
      • adequate calcium metabolism
      Author:Rachael Antwis and Robert K. Browne, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp
      Language:English

    • Icon of Maintenance of Insect Colonies Maintenance of Insect Colonies (516.4 KB)
      http://www.basicallybats.org
      Author:Susan Barnard, Basically Bats Wildlife Conservation Society
      Version:Bats in Captivity Online, 1995
      Language:English

    • Icon of Mountain Chicken Live Food Manual Mountain Chicken Live Food Manual (1.3 MB)
      This manual has been produced to provide information on the breeding requirements of live food insects for the mountain chicken.
      Author:Jimmy Dale
      Version:Revision 2: 24 April 2009
      Language:English

    • Icon of Nutrition and Health in Amphibian Husbandry Nutrition and Health in Amphibian Husbandry (226.2 KB)
      Nutritional needs of amphibians are highly integrated with disease and their husbandry needs, and the diversity of developmental stages, natural habitats, and feeding strategies result in many different recommendations for proper care and feeding. This review identifies several areas where there is substantial room for improvement in maintaining healthy ex situ amphibian populations specifically in the areas of obtaining and utilizing natural history data for both amphibians and their dietary items, achieving more appropriate environmental parameters, understanding stress and hormone production, and promoting better physical and population health.
      Author:Gina M. Ferrie et al.
      Version:Zoo Biology 9999 : 1 – 17 (2014)
      Language:English

    • Icon of Nutrition Recommendations for some Captive Amphibian Species Nutrition Recommendations for some Captive Amphibian Species (322.9 KB)
      This document provides information on the nutrition of captive amphibians from the Orders Anura (frogs, bullfrogs and toads) and Caudata (newts and salamanders). Species in these Orders have very simple gastrointestinal tracts (GITs), but providing appropriate nutrition to captives can be extremely complex because of ontogenetic dietary shifts and environmental toxicities. Because of this complexity, this document can only address general factors in captive amphibian nutrition.
      Author:Deborah A. McWilliams
      Version:2008
      Language:English

    • Icon of Nutritional Comparisons of Feeder Invertebrates Nutritional Comparisons of Feeder Invertebrates (45.7 KB)
      Language:English

    • Icon of Nutritional Support of Amphibians Nutritional Support of Amphibians (1.8 MB)
      Poor body condition is a common presenting sign in amphibians, and nutritional support of the animal can be critical. Indications and contraindications for assisted feeding in amphibians will be discussed, focusing on adult anurans (e.g., frogs, toads) and urodelans or caudates (e.g., salamanders, newts, sirens). Support can include restoring hydration, syringe feeding a liquid diet, force-feeding prey items to larger amphibians, and encouragement of free feeding. In all cases, the underlying cause—most commonly suboptimal husbandry—should be investigated and corrected.
      Author:Catherine A. Hadfield, Leigh A. Clayton, Sandra L. Barnett, National Aquarium in Baltimore
      Version:Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Vol 15, No 4 (October), 2006: pp
      Language:English

    • Icon of Proximate and Mineral Composition of Selected Whole Invertebrates and Nutritional Effects of Different Diets on the Field Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus Proximate and Mineral Composition of Selected Whole Invertebrates and Nutritional Effects of Different Diets on the Field Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus (3.3 MB)

      In this study the nutritional compositions of the invertebrate species that are cultured on site at the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in Jersey were analysed and the effects of different diets on G. maculatus was compared.

      Author:Chris E. Young, Nottingham Trent University
      Version:March 2010
      Language:English

    • Icon of The art of live food culturing The art of live food culturing (672.5 KB)

      As the title suggests, live food culturing does take some skill and time to properly master. This monograph is designed to help those who have an interest in raising their own live food cultures by providing information on a variety of food items.

      Author:John Chastain, Toledo Zoo
      Version:AZA Amphibian Biology,Conservation and Management Course
      Language:English

    • Icon of Vitamin D and Ultraviolet Radiation: Meeting Lighting Needs for Captive Animals Vitamin D and Ultraviolet Radiation: Meeting Lighting Needs for Captive Animals (78.2 KB)
      Most animals meet their vitamin D needs through diet or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, rickets and osteomalacia, classic consequences of calcium and vitamin D deficiency, are problems in a number of captive species, including certain basking reptiles and nursing primates, whenlittle or no access is provided to natural sunlight. Artificial light is commonly used to promote the health of animals housed indoors. However,to be effective and safe, the lamps used must emit radiant energy of appropriate UV wavelengths and intensity.
      Author:Joni B. Bernard
      Version:AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook (1997)
      Language:English

  • Icon of General Husbandry Documents General Husbandry Documents (14 files)
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  • Icon of Health Health (50 files)
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  • Icon of Light and UV Light and UV (10 files)
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  • Icon of Population Management Population Management (7 files)
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  • Icon of Program development Program development (2 files)
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  • Icon of Rearing Rearing (3 files)
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  • Icon of Reintroduction Reintroduction (3 files)
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  • Icon of Reproduction Reproduction (4 files)
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  • Icon of Taxon-specific Husbandry Taxon-specific Husbandry (30 files)
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  • Icon of Taxon-specific Management Plans Taxon-specific Management Plans (16 files)
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  • Icon of Water and Water Quality Water and Water Quality (6 files)
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  • Icon of Workshop presentations Workshop presentations (18 files)
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