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- Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home (4 files)
- Document Templates (11 files)
- Enclosures (6 files)
- Feeding and Nutrition (22 files)
- A Zoo-Wide Evaluation Into the Current Feeder Insect Supplementation Program at the Brookfield Zoo (140.9 KB)
Commercially raised insects are an important food source for captive animals. For those animals that are purely insectivorous, the nutrient concentrations of the food source are vitally important for the health and welfare of the animal, particularly the Ca to P ratio. In the summer of 2002, a zoo-wide evaluation of the current methods of insect supplementation was conducted at the Brookfield Zoo.
Author: Roy D. McClements BS, Barbara A. Lintzenich MS, and Jennifer Boardman Version: AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, 2003 Language: English
- Amphibian calcium metabolism (134.9 KB)
Calcium is present in amphibian blood at a concentration similar to that in other vertebrates, about 1–2mmol. The fraction of free calcium in amphibians is lower than that in other tetrapod vertebrates because about 50% of the plasma Ca is bound to plasma proteins and perhaps other molecules. There are a number of endocrine and other humoral factors that appear to be involved in amphibian calcium metabolism. These include parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, vitamin D and prolactin.
Author: Daniel F. Stiffler, California State Polytechnic University Version: J. exp. Biol. 184 , 47–61 (1993) Language: English
- Amphibian diet and nutrition (40.2 KB)
Amphibians are a very diverse group of vertebrates; however, in general their feeding is opportunistic with food up to gape width being ingested. Amphibians such as frogs and toads only target moving prey and prefer elongated prey such as crickets or insect larvae that move across their field of vision. However, many aquatic amphibians will target food by scent and will consume inert food.
Author: Robert K. Browne, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Belgium Version: 2009 Language: English
- Amphibian Nutrition (527.7 KB)
Course material on amphibian nutrition from the AZA Amphibian Biology, Conservation and Management course.
Author: Allan Pessier, Zoological Society of San Diego Version: AZA Amphibian Biology, Conservation and Management Course. Language: English
- Breeding house flies (418.6 KB)
House flies can be surprisingly easy and smell-free to culture for a food source.
- Cricket species vary in gut loading capacity: Implications for delivery of carotenoids to amphibians (1.6 MB)
There are a very limited number of commercially available invertebrates used as prey items for captive insectivores. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that most feeder invertebrates are of poor nutritional quality. Captive insectivores may therefore be prone to diseases related to nutritional inadequacies. Prey species may be fed on specific nutrients that are required in the insectivore diet. This is termed ‘Gut-loading’, and is often used to improve the quality of feeder invertebrates.
Author: V. Ogilvy, A.L. Fidgett, D. Sherriff and R.F. Preziosi Version: IZW poster, 2009 Language: English
- Directions for making fly food (76.7 KB)
Author: R. Mancilla, S. Yee, & M. Andres Version: 2003 Language: English
- EAZA Management Guideline Manual for Invertebrate Live Food Species (799.6 KB)
This manual has been designed to assist those concerned with the good management of invertebrate species destined as a captive live food resource, especially, but not exclusively, in zoos and aquaria. These guidelines cover the breeding and rearing methods for twenty three invertebrate species with supplementary information on invertebrate health and nutritional elements.
Author: (Eds) Warren Spencer and Jenny Spencer, Bristol Zoo Gardens Version: EAZA 2006 Language: English
- EVACC Nutrition Protocol (197.9 KB)
Author: Eric Baitchman Version: EVACC Veterinary Protocols Sep 2008 Language: English
- Feeding Captive Insectivorous Animals: Nutritional Aspects of Insects as Food (90.3 KB)
Many captive animals will consume invertebrates, live or dead, but it is often necessary to offer live invertebrates (primarily insects) to a variety of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and small mammals. To successfully manage captive insectivorous species, data on nutritional composition of invertebrate prey are especially important. Since live insects may be the only food offered to some species, nutritional deficiencies can quickly arise if the nutrient levels in the live prey are imbalanced.
Author: Joni B. Bernard and Mary E. Allen Version: AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook (1997) Language: English
- Hypovitiminosis A in a Captive Collection of Amphibians (129.2 KB)
Hypovitiminosis A is a disease of malnutrition or dysnutrition. There have been references to this disease for thousands of years and the ancient Egyptians treated xerophthalmia (night blindness) with liver from cattle or poultry that is rich in vitamin A. Today hypovitaminosis A is routinely diagnosed in humans, domestic livestock, and recently with more regularity in captive amphibian species.
Author: Gregory J. Fleming and Eduardo V. Valdes, Disney’s Animal Programs Language: English
- Leaping forward in amphibian health and nutrition (94.3 KB)
The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the Disney’s Animal Kingdom Workshop on “Ex situ Amphibian Medicine and Nutrition” identified a critical need to design and implement approaches that will facilitate the assessment and evaluation of factors impacting amphibian health. In this manuscript, we describe and summarize the outcomes of this workshop with regards (a) the identified gaps in knowledge, (b) identified priorities for closing these gaps, and (c) compile a list of actions to address these priorities.
Author: Francisco Olea-Popelka, Gina M. Ferrie, Cheryl Morris, Allan P. Pessier, Kristine Schad, M. Andrew Stamper, Ron Gagliardo, Elizabeth Koutsos, and Eduardo V. Valdes Version: Zoo Biology 9999 : 1 – 6 (2014) Language: English
- Live Feed Nutritional Supplementation (236.2 KB)
Adequate nutrition of amphibians ensures;
• rapid growth and normal development
• successful reproduction
• the production of fit and healthy offspring
• health and low mortality rate
• adequate calcium metabolism
Author: Rachael Antwis and Robert K. Browne, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp Language: English
- Maintenance of Insect Colonies (516.4 KB)
Author: Susan Barnard, Basically Bats Wildlife Conservation Society Version: Bats in Captivity Online, 1995 Language: English
- Mountain Chicken Live Food Manual (1.3 MB)
This manual has been produced to provide information on the breeding requirements of live food insects for the mountain chicken.
Author: Jimmy Dale Version: Revision 2: 24 April 2009 Language: English
- Nutrition and Health in Amphibian Husbandry (226.2 KB)
Nutritional needs of amphibians are highly integrated with disease and their husbandry needs, and the diversity of developmental stages, natural habitats, and feeding strategies result in many different recommendations for proper care and feeding. This review identifies several areas where there is substantial room for improvement in maintaining healthy ex situ amphibian populations specifically in the areas of obtaining and utilizing natural history data for both amphibians and their dietary items, achieving more appropriate environmental parameters, understanding stress and hormone production, and promoting better physical and population health.
Author: Gina M. Ferrie et al. Version: Zoo Biology 9999 : 1 – 17 (2014) Language: English
- Nutrition Recommendations for some Captive Amphibian Species (322.9 KB)
This document provides information on the nutrition of captive amphibians from the Orders Anura (frogs, bullfrogs and toads) and Caudata (newts and salamanders). Species in these Orders have very simple gastrointestinal tracts (GITs), but providing appropriate nutrition to captives can be extremely complex because of ontogenetic dietary shifts and environmental toxicities. Because of this complexity, this document can only address general factors in captive amphibian nutrition.
Author: Deborah A. McWilliams Version: 2008 Language: English
- Nutritional Comparisons of Feeder Invertebrates (45.7 KB)
- Nutritional Support of Amphibians (1.8 MB)
Poor body condition is a common presenting sign in amphibians, and nutritional support of the animal can be critical. Indications and contraindications for assisted feeding in amphibians will be discussed, focusing on adult anurans (e.g., frogs, toads) and urodelans or caudates (e.g., salamanders, newts, sirens). Support can include restoring hydration, syringe feeding a liquid diet, force-feeding prey items to larger amphibians, and encouragement of free feeding. In all cases, the underlying cause—most commonly suboptimal husbandry—should be investigated and corrected.
Author: Catherine A. Hadfield, Leigh A. Clayton, Sandra L. Barnett, National Aquarium in Baltimore Version: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Vol 15, No 4 (October), 2006: pp Language: English
- Proximate and Mineral Composition of Selected Whole Invertebrates and Nutritional Effects of Different Diets on the Field Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus (3.3 MB)
In this study the nutritional compositions of the invertebrate species that are cultured on site at the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in Jersey were analysed and the effects of different diets on G. maculatus was compared.
Author: Chris E. Young, Nottingham Trent University Version: March 2010 Language: English
- The art of live food culturing (672.5 KB)
As the title suggests, live food culturing does take some skill and time to properly master. This monograph is designed to help those who have an interest in raising their own live food cultures by providing information on a variety of food items.
Author: John Chastain, Toledo Zoo Version: AZA Amphibian Biology,Conservation and Management Course Language: English
- Vitamin D and Ultraviolet Radiation: Meeting Lighting Needs for Captive Animals (78.2 KB)
Most animals meet their vitamin D needs through diet or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, rickets and osteomalacia, classic consequences of calcium and vitamin D deficiency, are problems in a number of captive species, including certain basking reptiles and nursing primates, whenlittle or no access is provided to natural sunlight. Artificial light is commonly used to promote the health of animals housed indoors. However,to be effective and safe, the lamps used must emit radiant energy of appropriate UV wavelengths and intensity.
Author: Joni B. Bernard Version: AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook (1997) Language: English
- A Zoo-Wide Evaluation Into the Current Feeder Insect Supplementation Program at the Brookfield Zoo (140.9 KB)
- General Husbandry Documents (9 files)
- Health (51 files)
- Light and UV (10 files)
- National Amphibian Action Plans (11 files)
- Population Management (7 files)
- Program development (9 files)
- Rearing (3 files)
- Reintroduction (3 files)
- Reproduction (4 files)
- Species-specific Husbandry (33 files)
- Species-specific Management Plans (16 files)
- Water and Water Quality (6 files)
- Workshop presentations (18 files)