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Husbandry Documents

Manchester MuseumThis page includes a wide range of articles related to various aspects of amphibian husbandry. You can search for specific words within the title, author and description fields by using the Search field in the menu bar at the top of this page.

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  • Icon of Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home (4 files)
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  • Icon of Document Templates Document Templates (11 files)
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  • Icon of Enclosures Enclosures (6 files)
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  • Icon of Feeding and Nutrition Feeding and Nutrition (22 files)
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  • Icon of General Husbandry Documents General Husbandry Documents (9 files)
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  • Icon of Health Health (51 files)
    • Icon of Biosecurity and Quarantine Biosecurity and Quarantine (15 files)
      • Icon of A guide to husbandry and biosecurity standards required for the safe and responsible management of ex situ populations of amphibians A guide to husbandry and biosecurity standards required for the safe and responsible management of ex situ populations of amphibians (31 KB)
        Ex situ breeding of selected amphibian species is recognised as an essential and integral part of the IUCN Amphibian Conservation Action Plan to stem the loss of amphibian species worldwide. However, the emergence of the infectious disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) as a significant factor in the recent decline and extinction of many amphibian species, raises specific challenges for ex situ conservation. Increasing awareness of biosecurity issues and introducing a quarantine-like approach to amphibian husbandry of enclosures/rooms within an institution and between institutions will significantly reduce the risk of an epidemic outbreak of chytridiomycosis (or other disease) in captivity.

        These standards are based upon those reported in the proceedings of the CBSG/WAZA Amphibian Ex situ Conservation Planning Workshop, El Valle, Panama, 12-15th February 2006.
        Version:2008
        Language:English

      • Icon of Amphibian chytridiomycosis: strategies for captive management and conservation Amphibian chytridiomycosis: strategies for captive management and conservation (1.2 MB)
        Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian species have occurred worldwide over the last three decades owing to the introduction of chytridiomycosis. This emerging infectious disease is caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a virulent water-borne pathogen of many amphibian species. Zoological institutions can play a key role in preventing pathogen spread between captive facilities, and in disease surveillance, captive-breeding and reintroduction programmes, to limit the impact of this formidable disease on wild amphibian populations.
        Author:S. Young, L. Berger and R. Speare, James Cook University
        Version:Int. Zoo Yb. (2007) 41: 85–95
        Language:English

      • Icon of Amphibian quarantine protocols: Melbourne Zoo Amphibian quarantine protocols: Melbourne Zoo (39 KB)
        Quarantine protocols for Melbourne Zoo’s amphibians have been in operation for many years and are designed to reduce the risk of introducing pathogens to the collection, the spread of pathogens within the collection and the release of pathogens from the facility into receiving collections or free-ranging populations. This report will document existing protocols and provide additional information about diagnostic techniques, disinfection and therapeutic agents that relate to the containment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (fungus causing the disease chytridiomycosis) and other pathogens. It is intended as an information source for both veterinary and keeping staff.

        In: Speare R and Steering Committee of Getting the Jump on Amphibian Disease. Developing management strategies to control amphibian diseases: Decreasing the risks due to communicable diseases. School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University: Townsville. 2001: 157-161.
        Author:Michael Lynch, Melbourne Zoo
        Version:November 2000
        Language:English

      • Icon of AZA amphibian quarantine guidelines AZA amphibian quarantine guidelines (79 KB)
        All the classifications and recommendations below were created to form a baseline of information for amphibian management decisions within AZA facilities. The recommendations represent the optimal quality of care that might not be financially or physically possible given a facility's particular limitations. Therefore this document should not be construed as being mandated policy, but a set of suggestions that can improve amphibian care and conservation programs within participating institutions. The document can also be used to ensure the highest recommended standards possible (such as waste water treatment and solid waste disposal) are incorporated into plans for new amphibian facilities.
        Author:Shannon T. Ferrell, Fort Worth Zoo
        Language:English

      • Icon of Biosecurity and Permanent Isolation of Ex Situ Conservation Populations Biosecurity and Permanent Isolation of Ex Situ Conservation Populations (607 KB)

        Implementation of biosecurity practices that reduce the potential for introduction of amphibian infectious diseases to new locations are the responsibility of all institutions that maintain or move captive amphibians. In addition, good biosecurity practices help to reduce the risk posed by infectious diseases on the success and sustainability of captive amphibian programs. This is an extract from the Manual For Control of Infectious Diseases in Amphibian Survival Assurance Colonies and Reintroduction Programs.

        Author:Pessier, A.P. and J.R. Mendelson (eds.)
        Version:CBSG March 2017
        Language:English

      • Icon of Código de Práctica del Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force Código de Práctica del Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force (250 KB)
        Author:Karen R. Lips, Jaime K. Reaser, Bruce E. Young and Roberto Ibanez
        Version:SSAR Herpecological Circular No. 30
        Language:Español

      • Icon of Developing management strategies to control amphibian diseases: Decreasing the risks due to communicable diseases Developing management strategies to control amphibian diseases: Decreasing the risks due to communicable diseases (1.1 MB)
        This document fulfils the scope items for a contract between Environment Australia and Rick Speare of James Cook University to run a Conference / Workshop to develop management strategies to lessen the risk of communicable diseases to wild amphibians. The focus of this document is on formidable infectious diseases of wild amphibians. These are diseases with the potential to cause high levels of illness and death in wild populations. Two diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, were identified as being formidable diseases based on their pathogenicity and potential to cause epidemic deaths. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, was identified as the disease of greatest threat to wild amphibians. This document is a valuable resource to assist us in developing and implementing strategies to manage communicable diseases capable of putting at risk populations of amphibians in the wild.
        Author:Rick Speare, James Cook University
        Version:Report to Environment Australia, January 2001
        Language:English

      • Icon of Developing New Amphibian Quarantine Standards and Prerelease  Protocols Developing New Amphibian Quarantine Standards and Prerelease Protocols (202 KB)
        In February 2006, the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) and World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) held an Amphibian Ex-Situ Conservation Planning Workshop in Panama. During this workshop, recommendations where made to upgrade housing and quarantine standards currently in place at zoological institutions. These recommendations were initially criticized by many as being too impractical or extreme for AZA institutions to follow due to lack of resources and funding. However, given the global spread of chytrid fungus and the potential for new pathogens to do the same, the Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group is strongly encouraging institutions (especially those holding species designated for reintroduction) to modify their current husbandry and quarantine standards to comply with the new recommendations.
        Version:AZA Connect, February 2007
        Language:English

      • Icon of Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Herpetology Department Quarantine Service Order and Protocols Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Herpetology Department Quarantine Service Order and Protocols (28 KB)
        Version:February 12, 2008
        Language:English

      • Icon of Guidelines for minimising disease risks associated with captive breeding, raising and restocking programs for Australian frogs Guidelines for minimising disease risks associated with captive breeding, raising and restocking programs for Australian frogs (463 KB)
        The guidelines are intended for use nationally by conservation agencies, zoos, scientific research staff, industry organisations (e.g., the pet industry), students, frog keepers, wildlife rescue and carer groups, frog interest groups/societies and other key interest groups who regularly deal with or are likely to engage in captive breeding, raising and restocking programs for Australian frogs.
        Author:Murray, K., Skerratt, L., Marantelli, G., Berger, L., Hunter, D., Mahony, M. and Hines, H.
        Version:June 2001
        Language:English

      • Icon of Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs (1.7 MB)
        This information circular outlines measures to:
        • Prevent or reduce disease causing pathogens being transferred within and between wild populations of frogs.
        • Ensure captive frogs are not infected prior to release.
        • Deal safely with unintentionally transported frogs.
        • Assist with the proper identification and management of sick and dead frogs in the wild
        Author:NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
        Version:August 2001
        Language:English

      • Icon of Información básica sobre como reducir el riesgo de transmisión de agentes infecciosos entre ejemplares de anfibios y entre diferentes lugares Información básica sobre como reducir el riesgo de transmisión de agentes infecciosos entre ejemplares de anfibios y entre diferentes lugares (31 KB)
        (Basic information on how to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious agents between specimens of amphibians and between different places).
        Objetivos de este documento:
        - Dar a conocer el problema de las enfermedades emergentes de anfibios a los gestores del medio natural.
        - Aportar sugerencias para evitar la transmisión de estos patógenos entre animales, y entre diferentes localidades.
        Author:Jaime Bosch, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
        Language:Español

      • Icon of Main preventative management strategies for the Chytrid fungus Main preventative management strategies for the Chytrid fungus (107 KB)
        Language:English

      • Icon of Reducing disease risks in captive amphibians and protecting our wild native amphibians from invasive disease Reducing disease risks in captive amphibians and protecting our wild native amphibians from invasive disease (369 KB)
        Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (B.sal) is a newly-discovered species of chytrid fungus that can infect and kill a wide range of newts and salamanders. This fungus has become established in a few wild amphibian populations in parts of Europe where it is causing devastating population declines. It is thought to be spread internationally by the amphibian trade and unless all concerned (pet traders, scientists and amphibian keepers) take great care and apply some simple biosecurity measures, there is a risk that it could be introduced to captive and wild amphibian populations elsewhere in Europe. B.sal has already been found in captive newts and salamanders in the UK.
        Author:BIAZA
        Version:June 2015
        Language:English

      • Icon of Survival of B d in Water: Quarantine and Disease Control Implications Survival of B d in Water: Quarantine and Disease Control Implications (255 KB)
        Amphibian chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians thought to be moved between countries by trade in infected amphibians. The causative fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, produces aquatic, motile zoospores; infections have been achieved in experiments by exposing amphibians to water containing zoospores. However, the ability of this fungus to survive in the environment in the absence of an amphibian host is unknown. We show that B. dendrobatidis will survive in tap water and in deionized water for 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. In lake water, infectivity was observed for 7 weeks after introduction. The knowledge that water can remain infective for up to 7 weeks is important for the formulation of disease control and quarantine strategies for the management of water that has been in contact with amphibians.
        Author:Megan L. Johnson and Richard Speare
        Version: Emerging Infectious Diseases • Vol. 9, No. 8, August 2003
        Language:English

    • Icon of Diseases Diseases (11 files)
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    • Icon of Drugs and Treatment Drugs and Treatment (6 files)
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    • Icon of Frog Anatomy Charts Frog Anatomy Charts (3 files)
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    • Icon of Haematology Haematology (3 files)
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    • Icon of Medicine Medicine (4 files)
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    • Icon of Protocols Protocols (9 files)
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  • Icon of Light and UV Light and UV (10 files)
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  • Icon of National Amphibian Action Plans National Amphibian Action Plans (11 files)
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  • Icon of Population Management Population Management (7 files)
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  • Icon of Program development Program development (9 files)
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  • Icon of Rearing Rearing (3 files)
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  • Icon of Reintroduction Reintroduction (3 files)
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  • Icon of Reproduction Reproduction (4 files)
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  • Icon of Species-specific Husbandry Species-specific Husbandry (33 files)
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  • Icon of Species-specific Management Plans Species-specific Management Plans (17 files)
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  • Icon of Water and Water Quality Water and Water Quality (6 files)
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  • Icon of Workshop presentations Workshop presentations (18 files)
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