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Husbandry Documents

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  • Icon of Amphibian Action Plans Amphibian Action Plans (15 files)
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  • Icon of Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home (4 files)
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  • Icon of Document Templates Document Templates (5 files)
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  • Icon of Enclosures Enclosures (6 files)
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  • Icon of Feeding and Nutrition Feeding and Nutrition (22 files)
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  • Icon of General Husbandry Documents General Husbandry Documents (14 files)
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  • Icon of Health Health (51 files)
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  • Icon of Light and UV Light and UV (10 files)
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  • Icon of Population Management Population Management (7 files)
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  • Icon of Program development Program development (2 files)
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  • Icon of Rearing Rearing (3 files)
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  • Icon of Reintroduction Reintroduction (3 files)
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  • Icon of Reproduction Reproduction (4 files)
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  • Icon of Taxon-specific Husbandry Taxon-specific Husbandry (30 files)
    • Icon of Agalychnis lemur – Husbandry Guidelines (2012) Agalychnis lemur – Husbandry Guidelines (2012) (2.3 MB)
      Author:Tim Skelton
      Version:January 2011 [revised July 2012]
      Language:English

    • Icon of Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for Midwife toads (Alytes sp.) Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for Midwife toads (Alytes sp.) (2.7 MB)
      Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves committed.

      The information in this Best Practice Guideline has come from a variety of sources including an extensive literature review, the experience of the authors and others in the captive husbandry of Alytes species as well as direct observations of the species in the field.
      Author:Elizabeth Wells, David Garcia - Alonso , Gonçalo M. Rosa, Gerardo Garcia & Benjamin Tapley
      Version:Version 1, 2015
      Language:English

    • Icon of Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for the Lake Oku frog Xenopus longipes Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for the Lake Oku frog Xenopus longipes (1.3 MB)
      The information in this Best Practice Guideline has come from a variety of sources including a literature review, the experience of the authors and others in the captive husbandry of Xenopus longipes as well as direct observations of the species in the field. Amphibian husbandry is a rapidly evolving field and there are many aspects that require further research. Breeding triggers for X. longipes are currently unknown; this area should be a focus of further research if captive populations are to be viable. The vocalisation of X. longipes has not yet been described and further attempts to document and describe vocalisation should be made as this may facilitate monitoring of the species in Lake Oku.
      Author:Benjamin Tapley, Christopher Michaels, Luke Harding, Zoe Bryant, Iri Gill, Sebastian Grant, Nicole Chaney, Freeland Dunker, Brian Freiermuth, Jarrod Willis, David Blackburn & Thomas Doherty‐Bone
      Version:EAZA, 2016
      Language:English

    • Icon of An Attempt to Breed Atelopus flavescens by Artificial Means An Attempt to Breed Atelopus flavescens by Artificial Means (379.7 KB)
      http://www.treewalkers.org
      Author:Peter Mudde
      Version:Leaf Litter Vol. 1, Number 1 Spring 2007
      Language:English

    • Icon of An overview of current efforts to conserve the Critically Endangered mountain chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) on Dominica An overview of current efforts to conserve the Critically Endangered mountain chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) on Dominica (1.3 MB)
      Dominica was once the stronghold of one of the giants amongst frogs: the mountain chicken (Leptodactylus fallax). L. fallax is the largest amphibian in the Caribbean region. In December 2002, the presence of dead and sick L. fallax came to the attention of the authorities in Dominica. Over the following twelve to eighteen months, the Dominican L. fallax population crashed to the extent that no animals could be detected during routine surveys.
      Author:Benjamin Tapley, Luke Harding, Machel Sulton, Stephen Durand, Minchinton Burton, Jenny Spencer, Reginald Thomas, Trevorne Douglas, Jacqueline Andre, Randolph Winston, Meckeith George, Marta Gaworek-Michalczenia, Mike Hudson, Alex Blackman, James Dale and
      Version:The Herpetological Bulletin 128, 2014: 9-11
      Language:English

    • Icon of Aspects of captive husbandry of Taylor’s Bug-eyed Frog, Theloderma stellatum Aspects of captive husbandry of Taylor’s Bug-eyed Frog, Theloderma stellatum (1.5 MB)
      Taylor's Bug-eyed Frog (Theloderma stellatum) is a small Rhacophorid listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List as the extent of its habitat is declining and becoming increasingly degraded (IUCN et al., 2006). It has been recorded in eastern Thailand and south of central Vietnam and southern Laos (Orlov et al., 2002). Recently T. stellatum has been recorded in Eastern Cambodia (Stuart et al., 2006).
      Author:Benjamin Tapley, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
      Version:Herpetological Bulletin [2009] - Number 108
      Language:English

    • Icon of Atelopus (varius) zeteki – Husbandry Manual Atelopus (varius) zeteki – Husbandry Manual (668.0 KB)
      As a precautionary measure against extinction, ex situ populations of golden frogs are being maintained. Over two dozen founder pairs of have successfully spawned producing thousands of offspring.
      Author:Vicky Poole, National Aquarium in Baltimore
      Version:Second edition, 2006
      Language:English

    • Icon of Captive Reproduction of the Orange-legged Monkey Frog (Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis), and Development of a Protocol for Phyllomedusine Frog Reproduction in the Laboratory Captive Reproduction of the Orange-legged Monkey Frog (Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis), and Development of a Protocol for Phyllomedusine Frog Reproduction in the Laboratory (1.7 MB)
      Author:Danté Fenolio, Amphibia Research Group
      Version:Advances in Herpetoculture, 1996, 13-21
      Language:English

    • Icon of Centrolenid (Glass Frog) Husbandry Centrolenid (Glass Frog) Husbandry (29.1 KB)
      The purpose of the Specialty Taxa Monograph is to provide more information on husbandry and breeding of different taxa that may be encountered in amphibian collections. It is intended to be an addendum to the Basic Husbandry Monograph, where basic principles are addressed. Some husbandry specifics are based on experience at the Atlanta Botanical Garden (ABG) and others may experience different results.
      Author:Robert Hill and Ron Gagliardo, Atlanta Botanical Garden
      Version:Version 1, April 2008
      Language:English

    • Icon of Conservación ex situ del Sapo Arlequin de Wampukrum, de la Rana de Cristal de McDiarmid y la rana de Cristal Sabetari en el Centro de Conservación de Anfibios - Zoo Amaru Conservación ex situ del Sapo Arlequin de Wampukrum, de la Rana de Cristal de McDiarmid y la rana de Cristal Sabetari en el Centro de Conservación de Anfibios - Zoo Amaru (842.3 KB)
      El Centro de Conservación de Anfibios - Zoo AMARU en Cuenca (ACC-Amaru), se dedica a ayudar a salvar los anfibios en peligro de extinción en Ecuador y actualmente mantiene poblaciones de varios anfibios en peligro de extinción únicos para la Cordillera del Cóndor, incluyendo el Sapo Arlequin Wampukrum (Atelopus wampukrum sp. nov.), la Rana de Cristal de McDiarmid (Rulyrana mcdiarmidi) y la rana de Cristal Sabetari (Cochranella  erminea).
      Author:Fausto Siavichay Pesántez y Carlos C. Martínez Rivera
      Version:AArk Newsletter, December 2015
      Language:Spanish

    • Icon of Cría en cautividad y uso sostenible de la rana gigante del lago Titicaca (Telmatobius culeus) Cría en cautividad y uso sostenible de la rana gigante del lago Titicaca (Telmatobius culeus) (1.2 MB)
      Entre febrero de 2001 y enero de 2002 se realizaron estudios orientados a la conservación de la rana gigante del lago Titicaca (Telmatobius culeus), especie endémica amenazada por el comercio ilegal. Fueron realizados ensayos de cría en diversos ambientes.

      Between February 2001 and January 2002, I studied the breeding biology of the Lake Titicaca giant frog (Telmatobius culeus). This frog is endemic to the Lake Titicaca, and is threatened by the illegal trade. The study included evaluations of the response to various enclosures.
      Author:María Esther Pérez Beja
      Version:Monogr. Herpetol. (2005) 7:261-271
      Language:Spanish

    • Icon of Distribution of Typhlonectes natans in Colombia, environmental parameters and implications for captive husbandry Distribution of Typhlonectes natans in Colombia, environmental parameters and implications for captive husbandry (2.8 MB)
      Caecilians (Order Gymnophiona) remain enigmatic to a large extent. Their tropical distribution and often subterranean habits mean that they are rarely encountered in routine herpetological surveys (Gower & Wilkinson, 2005). The population and therefore conservation status of many caecilian species is unknown (IUCN et al., 2006).
      Author:Benjamin Tapley and Andrés Rymel Acosta-Galvis
      Version:Herpetological Bulletin [2010] - Number 113
      Language:English

    • Icon of Echinotriton andersoni Taxon Management Account Echinotriton andersoni Taxon Management Account (69.0 KB)
      Author:Compiled by Kevin Zippel
      Version:March 2000
      Language:English

    • Icon of Elevage d’une Rainette marsupiale arboricole des forêts nuageuses équatoriennes, Gastrotheca plumbea (Boulenger) Elevage d’une Rainette marsupiale arboricole des forêts nuageuses équatoriennes, Gastrotheca plumbea (Boulenger) (1.3 MB)
      Breeding a marsupial tree frog from the cloud forest of Ecuador Gastrotheca plumbea (Boulenger).
      Author:Michèle Auber-Thomay, Luis Coloma and Giovanni Onore, Revue française d’aquariologie
      Version:Revue fr. Aquariol., 17 (1990), 2, 15 Novembre 1990
      Language:French

    • Icon of Ex situ conservation of the Wampukrum Harlequin Toad, McDiarmid’s Glass Frog, and Sabetari Glass Frogs at the Amphibian Conservation Center - Zoo Amaru Ex situ conservation of the Wampukrum Harlequin Toad, McDiarmid’s Glass Frog, and Sabetari Glass Frogs at the Amphibian Conservation Center - Zoo Amaru (809.2 KB)
      The Amphibian Conservation Center - Zoo AMARU in Cuenca (ACC-Amaru), is dedicated to helping save Ecuador’s endangered amphibians and currently holds populations of several endangered amphibians unique to Cordillera del Condor, including the Wampukrum Harlequin Toad (Atelopus wampukrum sp. nov.), McDiarmid’s Glass Frog (Rulyrana mcdiarmidi), and Sabetari Glass Frogs (Cochranella erminea).
      Author:Fausto Siavichay Pesántez and Carlos C. Martínez Rivera
      Version:AArk Newsletter, December 2015
      Language:English

    • Icon of Ex situ conservation program for the Andean Marsupial Tree Frog Ex situ conservation program for the Andean Marsupial Tree Frog (574.0 KB)
      The Quito Zoo in Guayllabamba, Ecuador began an ex situ conservation program for the Andean Marsupial Tree Frog (Gastrotheca riobambae) in November 2014 with specimens collected from populations in the north east of Pichincha. These adults are currently on display, although the first tadpoles to be bred at the Zoo have been transferred to a separate management area at the Zoo.
      Author:María Teresa Alvear and Diego Almeida Reinoso
      Version:AArk Newsletter, June 2015
      Language:English

    • Icon of Guía para el manejo ex-situ de Mannophryne collaris Guía para el manejo ex-situ de Mannophryne collaris (110.0 KB)
      Author:Enrique La Marca
      Version:Mayo 2016
      Language:Spanish

    • Icon of Husbandry Guidelines, Mannophryne Collaris Husbandry Guidelines, Mannophryne Collaris (161.9 KB)
      Husbandry guidelines for Merida’s Collared Frog, Mannophryne collaris.
      Author:Enrique La Marca
      Version:May 29, 2016
      Language:English

    • Icon of Mantella aurantiaca – Ex Situ Management Guidelines Mantella aurantiaca – Ex Situ Management Guidelines (141.2 KB)
      Author:Craig Walker and Richard Gibson, ZSL; Devin Edmonds , Association Mitsinjo
      Version:February 2013
      Language:English

    • Icon of Neurergus kaiseri – Ex SItu Management Guidelines Neurergus kaiseri – Ex SItu Management Guidelines (175.3 KB)
      Author:Compiled by Helena Olsson and edited by Richard Gibson
      Language:English

    • Icon of New Zealand Native Frog Captive Husbandry Manual New Zealand Native Frog Captive Husbandry Manual (597.2 KB)
      The principal audience for this document are employees of the New Zealand Department of Conservation and any external organisation or individual with an interest or intent to keep and maintain Leiopelma frogs in captivity.
      Author:Nadia Webster, Department of Conservation
      Version:May 2004
      Language:English

    • Icon of Notes on the captive husbandry and breeding of the Shovel-footed Squeaker, Arthroleptis stenodactylus Notes on the captive husbandry and breeding of the Shovel-footed Squeaker, Arthroleptis stenodactylus (1.6 MB)
      This species is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red list due to its widespread distribution and tolerance of a range of habitats. it is notable, however, that it may represent a complex of cryptic species, and taxonomic revision of the complex is required (Channing & Howell, 2006). Arthroleptis stenodactylus is found throughout coastal Kenya, eastern and southern Tanzania, the island of Zanzibar, Mozambique, Zambia, the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo to western Angola, northern Botswana, Zimbabwe and north-eastern South Africa.
      Author:Benjamin Tapley
      Version:Number 110 - Herpetological Bulletin [2009]
      Language:English

    • Icon of Observations on the Captive Reproduction of the Horned Marsupial Frog Gastrotheca cornuta (Boulenger 1898) Observations on the Captive Reproduction of the Horned Marsupial Frog Gastrotheca cornuta (Boulenger 1898) (722.8 KB)
      The marsupial frogs (Family Hemiphractidae) from Latin America are some of the most intriguing anuran species known. As their name implies, females of these frogs bear a dorsal pouch in which they carry eggs, tadpoles and/or froglets.
      Author:Ronald Gagliardo, Edgardo Griffith, Robert Hill, Heidi Ross, Joseph R. Mendelson III, Elizabeth Timpe, Brad Wilson
      Version:Herpetological Review, 2010, 4(1), 52-58
      Language:English

    • Icon of Observations sur le développement de la Rainette Marsupiale, Gastrotheca riobambae (Hylides) Observations sur le développement de la Rainette Marsupiale, Gastrotheca riobambae (Hylides) (1.9 MB)
      Author:Michèle Auber-Thomay and Francoise Letellier
      Version:Rev. fr. Aquariol., 13 (1986), 3, 15 Novembre 1986
      Language:French

    • Icon of Phyllomedusine (Leaf Frog) Husbandry Phyllomedusine (Leaf Frog) Husbandry (150.4 KB)
      Author:Ron Gagliardo, Amphibian Ark
      Version:Version 2, April 2009
      Language:English

    • Icon of Programa de conservación ex situ de la rana marsupial andina Programa de conservación ex situ de la rana marsupial andina (555.5 KB)
      El Zoológico de Quito en Guayllabamba, Ecuador inició el programa de conservación ex situ de la Rana Marsupial Andina (Gastrotheca riobambae) en Noviembre de 2014 con ejemplares provenientes de las poblaciones del Nor Oriente de Pichincha. Estos ejemplares adultos se encuentran actualmente en exhibición, de los cuales se obtuvieron los primeros renacuajos, que posteriormente fueron trasladados al área de manejo ex situ del Zoológico.
      Author:María Teresa Alvear y Diego Almeida Reinoso
      Version:AArk Newsletter, June 2015
      Language:Spanish

    • Icon of Puerto Rican Crested Toad (Peltophryne lemur) Husbandry Manual Puerto Rican Crested Toad (Peltophryne lemur) Husbandry Manual (2.4 MB)
      Puerto Rican Crested Toads, Peltophryne lemur are the only native species of toad found in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This is a medium sized toad (64 to 120 mm snout-vent length) with distinctive supraorbital crests and a prominent upturned nose.
      Author:Andrew Lentini, Toronto Zoo
      Version:2006/2007 update
      Language:English

    • Icon of Relating natural climate and phenology to captive husbandry in two midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans and A. cisternasii) from different climatic zones Relating natural climate and phenology to captive husbandry in two midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans and A. cisternasii) from different climatic zones (1.1 MB)
      Captive husbandry and breeding may be pivotal to the successful conservation of many amphibian species, with captive stock providing research subjects, educational tools and animals for release into the wild. Husbandry protocols are missing for many species and sub-optimal for many more, which may limit the success of captive breeding attempts. It has been suggested that observations and environmental data taken from species in nature may be used to infer optimal captive conditions for amphibians. For species where data from the wild are not available, ‘analogue’, that is closely related but more accessible species, may be used as surrogates to inform captive husbandry to some degree. These hypotheses, although logically cogent, are not well tested in amphibians. In particular, the suitability of analogue species based on some knowledge of basic ecology and biology is frequently not assessed. We show that captive husbandry requirements and breeding stimuli correlate with field data and phenology in wild populations of the midwife toads Alytes obstetricans and  A. cisternasii. In particular, the provision of hot summer temperatures following a cold brumation period of suitable duration may be important for breeding the western-central European A. obstetricans. Conversely, the Iberian A. cisternasii responds to hot summer temperatures with a rest period and reproduces in the cooler autumn and winter months. Brooding success was highly variable in A. obstetricans and smaller than records from wild toads, possibly due to the young age of breeding stock. Clutch size was similar in A. cisternasii to records from wild counterparts. Although specific breeding triggers and annual temperature requirements are likely to vary between localities for both species, these observations provide some useful data on the indoor breeding of both species. Our results also highlight the relevance of field data in designing captive husbandry protocols, while illustrating the inappropriateness of using one species as an analogue for the other in terms of husbandry requirements unless basic aspects of natural history, ecology and phenology can be shown to be broadly similar.
      Author:Christopher J. Michaels, Michael Fahrbach, Luke Harding, Zoe Bryant, Joseph-Smiley Capon-Doyle, Sebastian Grant, Iri Gill, Benjamin Tapley
      Version:Alytes 2016 | Volume 33 | Pages 2-11
      Language:English

    • Icon of Species profile: Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes) Species profile: Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes) (538.9 KB)
      The Critically Endangered Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes) conforms to IUCN Red List, Amphibian Ark guidelines and EDGE assessments as a priority candidate for a conservation breeding program supported by a Taxon Management Plan. This population is under threat of extinction from the possible introduction of exotic fish, disease, invasive species and habitat modification. In 2008 a population census of X. longipes recognised the safety of removing founders to establish an international conservation breeding program.
      Author:Browne RK, Blackburn DC, Doherty-Bone T
      Version:2009
      Language:English

    • Icon of Towards evidence-based husbandry for caecilian amphibians: Substrate preference in Geotrypetes seraphini (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae) Towards evidence-based husbandry for caecilian amphibians: Substrate preference in Geotrypetes seraphini (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae) (585.2 KB)
      Maintaining caecilians in captivity provides opportunities to study life-history, behaviour and reproductive biology and to investigate and to develop treatment protocols for amphibian chytridiomycosis. Few species of caecilians are maintained in captivity and little has been published on their husbandry. We present data on substrate preference in a group of eight Central African Geotrypetes seraphini (Duméril, 1859).
      Author:Benjamin Tapley, Zoe Bryant, Sebastian Grant, Grant Kother, Yedra Feltrer, Nic Masters, Taina Strike, Iri Gill, Mark Wilkinson & David J Gower
      Version:The Herpetological Bulletin 129, 2014: 15-18
      Language:English

  • Icon of Taxon-specific Management Plans Taxon-specific Management Plans (16 files)
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  • Icon of Water and Water Quality Water and Water Quality (6 files)
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  • Icon of Workshop presentations Workshop presentations (18 files)
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