AArk logo

Husbandry Documents

Manchester MuseumThis page includes a wide range of articles related to various aspects of amphibian husbandry. You can search for specific words within the title, author and description fields by using the Search field in the menu bar at the top of this page.

To view a document, left mouse-click on a title, or you can download the article by right mouse-clicking on the title and selecting Save Link As…

We are currently expanding this page to include a wide range of amphibian husbandry reference documents. If you would like to submit additional documents for this page, you can submit them using this form.

  • Icon of Amphibian Action Plans Amphibian Action Plans (15 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home (4 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Document Templates Document Templates (5 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Enclosures Enclosures (6 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Feeding and Nutrition Feeding and Nutrition (22 files)
    •  
  • Icon of General Husbandry Documents General Husbandry Documents (14 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Health Health (50 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Light and UV Light and UV (10 files)
    • Icon of A Comparison of Responses by Three Broadband Radiometers to Different Ultraviolet-B Sources A Comparison of Responses by Three Broadband Radiometers to Different Ultraviolet-B Sources (90.5 KB)
      Three types of broadband ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiometers were shown to display different irradiances from the same light source. Also, natural light and different lamp types were shown to have different vitamin D–synthesizing potential. Equations relating the irradiance readings from UVB radiometers from Gigahertz-Optik Inc., UVP Inc., and Spectronics Corp. to in vitro vitamin D–synthesizing potential are reported for four UVB sources.
      Author:W.H. Gehrmann, J.D. Horner, G.W. Ferguson, T.C. Chen and M.F. Holick
      Version:Zoo Biology 23:355–363 (2004)
      Language:English

    • Icon of A Comparison of Vitamin D-Synthesizing Ability of Different Light Sources to Irradiances Measured with a Solarmeter Model 6.2 UVB Meter A Comparison of Vitamin D-Synthesizing Ability of Different Light Sources to Irradiances Measured with a Solarmeter Model 6.2 UVB Meter (322.7 KB)
      Recognition of nutritional metabolic bone disease (= nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism) in herpetological collections in recent years decades has led to an interest in measuring ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-315 nm) in natural light and in vivaria illuminated with artificial lamps.
      Author:W.H. Gehrmann, D. Jamieson, G.W. Ferguson, J.D. Horner, T.C. Chen and M.F. Holick
      Version:Herpetological Review, 2004, 35(4), 361-364
      Language:English

    • Icon of How much UV-B does my reptile need? The UV-Tool, a guide to the selection of UV lighting for reptiles and amphibians in captivity How much UV-B does my reptile need? The UV-Tool, a guide to the selection of UV lighting for reptiles and amphibians in captivity (0.0 B)
      Guidance is almost non-existent as to suitable levels of UV lighting for reptiles and amphibians, or how to achieve satisfactory UV gradients using artificial lighting. The UV-Tool is a working document that seeks to address this problem, by considering the range of UV experienced by each species in the wild. The UV-Tool contains an editable and expanding database of the microhabitat requirements and basking behaviour of reptile and amphibian species, as derived from field studies, or inferred from observed behaviour in captivity. Since an animal’s UV-B exposure is determined by its behaviour within its native microhabitat, estimation of its natural range of daily UV-B exposure is then possible. The current version of the UV-Tool assigns 254 species to each of four ‘zones’ of UV-B exposure (Ferguson zones) based upon UV-index measurements. Once the likely UV requirement of any species of reptile or amphibian is ascertained, the next step is to plan safe but effective UV gradients within the captive environment. To do this requires knowledge of the UV spectrum and output of the lamps to be used. The UV-Tool therefore includes test reports and UV-index gradient maps for commercially available UV-B lighting products, and a guide to selection of appropriate lamps for use in vivaria and in larger zoo enclosures. There are reports on 24 different products in the current version of the UV-Tool. This document has been compiled by members of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquaria (BIAZA) Reptile and Amphibian Working Group (RAWG) with contributions from zookeepers and herpetologists from the UK and abroad. Further input is welcome and encouraged.
      Author:Frances Baines, Joe Chattell, James Dale, Dan Garrick, Iri Gill, Matt Goetz, Tim Skelton and Matt Swatman
      Version:Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 4(1) 2016
      Language:English

    • Icon of Larval amphibians seek warm temperatures and do not avoid harmful UVB radiation Larval amphibians seek warm temperatures and do not avoid harmful UVB radiation (323.4 KB)
      Habitat use by animals often reflects the balance between conflicting demands such as foraging and avoiding predation. Environmental stressors such as temperature can also affect habitat use in many organisms, particularly in ectothermic animals. For example, warm, shallow thermal regimes in ponds can optimize growth and developmental rate of amphibian larvae but may also expose larvae to potentially harmful levels of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Thus, optimally, amphibians seeking sunlight for thermoregulation must balance this behavior while limiting their exposure to harmful UVB radiation. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to test the hypothesis that larval amphibians avoid UVB by selecting microhabitats with lower exposure to UVB
      Author:Betsy A. Bancroft, Nick J. Baker, Catherine L. Searle, Tiffany S. Garcia and Andrew R. Blaustein
      Version:Behavioral Ecology Advance Access publication 21 April 2008
      Language:English

    • Icon of Meeting Ultraviolet B Radiation Requirements of Amphibians in Captivity: A Case Study With Mountain Chicken Frogs (Leptodactylus fallax) and General Recommendations for Pre‐Release Health Screening Meeting Ultraviolet B Radiation Requirements of Amphibians in Captivity: A Case Study With Mountain Chicken Frogs (Leptodactylus fallax) and General Recommendations for Pre‐Release Health Screening (1.3 MB)
      Conservation breeding programmes are a tool used to prevent amphibian extinctions. The husbandry requirements of amphibians are complex. Ongoing research is needed to ensure optimal management of those captive‐bred animals destined, in particular, for reintroduction. The UV‐B and vitamin D3 requirements of amphibians are largely unknown. Metabolic bone disease has been reported in a number of species. We demonstrate here that, through the appropriate provision of a combination of both V‐B radiation and dietary supplementation, L. fallax can be bred and reared in captivity with healthy skeletal development.
      Author:Tapley, B., Rendle, M, Baines, F.M., Goetz, M, Bradfield, K.S., Rood, D., Lopez, J., Garcia, G., and Routh, A.
      Version:Zoo Biology 9999 : 1–7 (2014)
      Language:English

    • Icon of Rays and mild climate deadly for frogs Rays and mild climate deadly for frogs (30.7 KB)
      A Brisbane scientist has discovered that even small doses of ultra violet radiation during mild temperatures can be fatal for frogs.
      Story printed on: May 26, 2006, 5:07 pm
      Story from UQ NEWS ONLINE: http://www.uq.edu.au/news/?article=9638
      Version:UQ News Online, May 2006
      Language:English

    • Icon of The lunar cycle: a cue for amphibian reproductive phenology? The lunar cycle: a cue for amphibian reproductive phenology? (477.2 KB)
      Lunar cycles give rise to cues that can be recognized by animals, including changes in light intensity, geomagnetism and gravity. Many environmental variables affect reproductive timing in amphibians and we tested the hypothesis that lunar cycles provide one of the cues for amphibian breeding phenology.
      Author:Rachel A. Grant, Elizabeth A. Chadwick, Tim Halliday
      Version:Animal Behaviour, (2009)
      Language:English

    • Icon of UV-B, Vitamin D3, and amphibian health and behaviour UV-B, Vitamin D3, and amphibian health and behaviour (222.8 KB)
      This document provides a short summary of the biological issues concerning studies of Vitamin D3 and UV-B metabolism in amphibians. We also present some simple experimental designs.
      Author:Robert Browne, Francis Vercammen, Elfi Verschooren and Rachael E. Antwis
      Version:AArk Science and Research portal
      Language:English

    • Icon of UV-lamps for Terrariums: Thier Spectral Characteristics and Efficiency in Promoting Vitamin D3 Synthesis by UVB Irradiation UV-lamps for Terrariums: Thier Spectral Characteristics and Efficiency in Promoting Vitamin D3 Synthesis by UVB Irradiation (526.4 KB)
      Sufficient irradiation within a narrow sub-band of the UVB range is a prerequisite for the photosynthesis of vitamin D3 in skin. Although radiation below wavelength of 300 nm (nanometres) promotes photosynthesis of vitamin D3, radiation above 300 nm destroys vitamin D3 that has been already synthesised in skin tissue or nutritionally obtained. In the study, the characteristics of light produced by fourteen different models of UV and full spectrum lamps specifically designed for terrarium use were measured over a range of 250–800 nm.
      Author:Jukka Lindgren
      Version:Herpetomania 13 3-4/2004
      Language:English

    • Icon of UVB to Calcium cycle UVB to Calcium cycle (139.0 KB)
      Language:English

  • Icon of Population Management Population Management (7 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Program development Program development (2 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Rearing Rearing (3 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Reintroduction Reintroduction (3 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Reproduction Reproduction (4 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Taxon-specific Husbandry Taxon-specific Husbandry (30 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Taxon-specific Management Plans Taxon-specific Management Plans (16 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Water and Water Quality Water and Water Quality (6 files)
    •  
  • Icon of Workshop presentations Workshop presentations (18 files)
    •