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Husbandry Documents

Manchester MuseumThis page includes a wide range of articles related to various aspects of amphibian husbandry. You can search for specific words within the title, author and description fields by using the Search field in the menu bar at the top of this page.

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  • Icon of Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home (4 files)
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  • Icon of Document Templates Document Templates (11 files)
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  • Icon of Enclosures Enclosures (6 files)
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  • Icon of Feeding and Nutrition Feeding and Nutrition (22 files)
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  • Icon of General Husbandry Documents General Husbandry Documents (9 files)
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  • Icon of Health Health (51 files)
    • Icon of Biosecurity and Quarantine Biosecurity and Quarantine (15 files)
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    • Icon of Diseases Diseases (11 files)
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    • Icon of Drugs and Treatment Drugs and Treatment (6 files)
      • Icon of Compendium of Drugs and Compounds Used in Amphibians Compendium of Drugs and Compounds Used in Amphibians (68 KB)
        Author:Stephen A. Smith
        Version:ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007
        Language:English

      • Icon of Developing a safe antifungal treatment protocol to eliminate Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from amphibians Developing a safe antifungal treatment protocol to eliminate Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from amphibians (252 KB)
        Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is one of the most pathogenic microorganisms affecting amphibians in both captivity and in nature. The establishment of B. dendrobatidis free, stable, amphibian captive breeding colonies is one of the emergency measures that is being taken to save threatened amphibian species from extinction. For this purpose, in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing and the development of efficient and safe treatment protocols are required. In this study, we evaluated the use of amphotericin B and voriconazole to treat chytridiomycosis in amphibians.
        Author:A. Martel, P. Van Rooij, G. Vercauteren, K. Baert, L. Van Waeyenberghe, P. Debacker, T. W. J. Garner, T. Woeltjes, R. Ducatelle, F. Haesebrouck & F. Pasmans
        Version:Medical Mycology Month 2010, Early Online , 1–7
        Language:English

      • Icon of Itraconazole treatment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection in captive caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) and the first case of Bd in a wild neotropical caecilian Itraconazole treatment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection in captive caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) and the first case of Bd in a wild neotropical caecilian (803 KB)

        Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the causative agent of the disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, one of the factors driving amphibian population declines. Bd infections are treatable in at least some cases, but in the Gymnophiona has been little reported, and restricted to heat treatment in the form of increased environmental temperature. We report the successful treatment of Bd infection in the terrestrial African caecilian Geotrypetes seraphini and the prophylactic treatment of the aquatic neotropical caecilian Potomotyphlus kaupii, using 30 minute immersions in a 0.01% solution of the antifungal itraconazole over a period of 11 days. Previously only recorded in wild African Gymnophiona, our report of Bd in P. kaupii is not only the first record of infection in a wild aquatic caecilian but also in a caecilian of neotropical origin. To improve our understanding of the impact of Bd on caecilians, Bd isolates should be obtained from wild caecilians in order to ascertain what lineages of Bd infect this order. In addition, more wild individuals should be subjected to Bd diagnostic surveys, including in Asia where caecilians have not yet been subject to such surveys.

        Author:Matthew Rendle, Benjamin Tapley, Matthew Perkins, Gabriela Bittencourt-Silva, David J. Gower and Mark Wilkinson
        Version:Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 3(4) 2015
        Language:English

      • Icon of Successful treatment of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infections in salamanders requires synergy between voriconazole, polymyxin E and temperature Successful treatment of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infections in salamanders requires synergy between voriconazole, polymyxin E and temperature (606 KB)
        Chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) poses a serious threat to urodelan diversity worldwide. Antimycotic treatment of this disease using protocols developed for the related fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), results in therapeutic failure. Here, we reveal that this therapeutic failure is partly due to different minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimycotics against Bsal and Bd. In vitro growth inhibition of Bsal occurs after exposure to voriconazole, polymyxin E, itraconazole and terbinafine but not to florfenicol. Synergistic effects between polymyxin E and voriconazole or itraconazole significantly decreased the combined MICs necessary to inhibit Bsal growth. Topical treatment of infected fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra), with voriconazole or itraconazole alone (12.5 μg/ml and 0.6 μg/ml respectively) or in combination with polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) at an ambient temperature of 15 °C during 10 days decreased fungal loads but did not clear Bsal infections. However, topical treatment of Bsal infected animals with a combination of polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) and voriconazole (12.5 μg/ml) at an ambient temperature of 20 °C resulted in clearance of Bsal infections. This treatment protocol was validated in 12 fire salamanders infected with Bsal during a field outbreak and resulted in clearance of infection in all animals.
        Author:M. Blooi1, F. Pasmans, L. Rouffaer, F. Haesebrouck, F. Vercammen & A. Martel
        Version:Scientific Reports | 5:11788 | DOI: 10.1038/srep11788
        Language:English

      • Icon of Successful Treatment of Chytridiomycosis Successful Treatment of Chytridiomycosis (18 KB)
        Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently discovered species of chytridiomycete (chytrid) fungus (Longcore et al., 1999) that has been isolated from many different amphibian species with fatal skin infections (Longcore, 2000). In a study, we experimentally infected juvenile D. tinctorius and then, once excessive skin shedding had begun, we treated them topically with one of three antimicrobial drugs: trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), miconazole, or itraconazole (Nichols et al., 2000).
        Author:Donald K. Nichols and Elaine W. Lamirande
        Language:English

      • Icon of Successful Treatment of Chytridiomycosis Successful Treatment of Chytridiomycosis (18 KB)
        Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently discovered species of chytridiomycete (chytrid) fungus (Longcore et al., 1999) that has been isolated from many different amphibian species with fatal skin infections (Longcore, 2000). In a study, we experimentally infected juvenile D. tinctorius and then, once excessive skin shedding had begun, we treated them topically with one of three antimicrobial drugs: trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), miconazole, or itraconazole (Nichols et al., 2000).
        Author:Donald K. Nichols and Elaine W. Lamirande
        Language:English

    • Icon of Frog Anatomy Charts Frog Anatomy Charts (3 files)
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    • Icon of Haematology Haematology (3 files)
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    • Icon of Medicine Medicine (4 files)
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    • Icon of Protocols Protocols (9 files)
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  • Icon of Light and UV Light and UV (10 files)
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  • Icon of National Amphibian Action Plans National Amphibian Action Plans (11 files)
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  • Icon of Population Management Population Management (7 files)
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  • Icon of Program development Program development (9 files)
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  • Icon of Rearing Rearing (3 files)
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  • Icon of Reintroduction Reintroduction (3 files)
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  • Icon of Reproduction Reproduction (4 files)
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  • Icon of Species-specific Husbandry Species-specific Husbandry (33 files)
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  • Icon of Species-specific Management Plans Species-specific Management Plans (17 files)
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  • Icon of Water and Water Quality Water and Water Quality (6 files)
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  • Icon of Workshop presentations Workshop presentations (18 files)
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