Rescue Species

Since 2007, Amphibian Ark staff have facilitated assessment of the conservation needs of 3,375 (46%) of the world’s amphibian species through 26 national or regional workshops. The results of previous assessment workshops are available on AArk’s data portal and additional workshops are planned for other countries and regions over the coming months.

The benefits of this assessment process are clear – we assemble the leading amphibian field experts in each region, to collectively determine the best course of conservation actions to help prevent the extinctions of threatened amphibian species in nature. These actions include habitat restoration and preservation, threat mitigation, captive breeding for release and community awareness and involvement.

Without immediate captive management as a stopgap component of an integrated conservation effort, hundreds of species could become extinct. Because the resources available to zoos and aquariums are limited, the Amphibian Ark must try to identify which species require captive rescue and management most urgently. The following species have been assessed in national or regional workshops as being in need of urgent rescue – these are species that still exist in the wild, but the threats being faced by them cannot or will not be reversed in time to prevent likely species extinction. Threats that constitute imminent danger of extinction include threats for which we currently have no remedy (e.g. chytrid fungus, including any species known or suspected to be susceptible, climate change, including any species documented to be drastically contracting its range, e.g., mountaintop salamanders in Central America (per Wake et al.) and mountaintop frogs in Madagascar (per Raxworthy et al.)) or threats for which we have a remedy but not the resources or will to intervene (e.g. imminent destruction of more than 50% of habitat by dam construction, mining/pollution etc., or species collected to brink of extinction).

Zoos, aquariums and other captive breeding organizations that are considering the implementation of new amphibian conservation programs are strongly encouraged to consider the following species. Information regarding the likely availability of founder animals and the completion of a relevant phylogenetic study is included where known. Such additional information may indicate which species are currently appropriate for captive rescue programs, and those which may benefit from additional research in the wild prior to a captive program being established. Species expected to have wild founders available and which have undergone a phylogenetic review should perhaps be considered ahead of others where information is incomplete. Programs should be established within the range country of the species wherever possible.

Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia
Cuba Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic
Ecuador France Greece Guatemala
Haiti Hong Kong/China Iran Jamaica
Madagascar Malaysia Mexico Morocco
Panama Peru Puerto Rico Singapore
Southern Africa Spain Sri Lanka Thailand
Turkey USA Venezuela  

 


Argentina

5 species for which founders are not likely to be available and status of phylogenetic studies is unknown

Telmatobius ceiorum. Endangered – Argentina. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Parte de la distribucion se encuentra en area protegida, pero no presenta proteccion efectiva. Amenaza: trucha. Hay una siembra continua de truchas debido a que no son viables. Deforestacion. Hace 8 años que se las esta buscando, y no se encontraron especimenes.

Telmatobius laticeps. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
No se encuentra dentro de un area protegida. Amenazas: trucha, dinamica de arroyos, causas climaticas no necesariamente relacionadas con actividades humanas . Estan en una zona restringida. En zonas donde no esta la trucha, tambien hubo declinacion de la especie (no se sabe bien la causa). Se las busca hace un buen tiempo (8-10 años), sin ser encontradas.

Telmatobius pisanoi. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
No se encuentra en areas protegidas. Se encontro Bd relacionado con disminucion. Se encuentran en zonas secas. Se han encontrado muy pocos ejemplares.

Telmatobius schreiteri. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
No se encuentran en areas naturales protegidas. Amenazas: trucha. Fueron buscados por los ultimos 5 años sin encontrarse ejemplares.

Telmatobius stephani. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
No se encuentra en ambientes naturales protegidos. No fue muy buscado. Amenaza: trucha.

1 species that we do not know if founders are likely to be available and status of phylogenetic study is unknown

Rhinella achalensis, Sapo de Achala. Near Threatened. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available.
Se encuentran dentro de areas protegidas. Esta declinando tanto en areas protegidas como no protegidas. Estudios sobre encuentro entre macho y hembra durante epoca reproductiva necesarios (al no cantar no se sabe como sucede). Amenazas: ganaderia, fuego, Bd. La especie esta declinando (en rango y numero) en areas donde no se encuentran estas amenazas (posibilidad de que existan otras amenazas desconocidas). No se puede establecer una relacion directa de las amenazas con la declinacion de la especie. Se buscan desde hace 4 años y se ha encontrado una sola poblacion (8 ejemplares). Educacion: junto con las especies de Achala, son buen ejemplo de especiacion y endemismo.


Brazil

8 species for which founders are likely to be available and status of phylogenetic studies is unknown

Dendrophryniscus stawiarskyi. Data Deficient. Wild founders are likely to be available.

Melanophryniscus alipioi. Wild founders are likely to be available.

ARKive photo - Dorsal view of Torres red-belly toadMelanophryniscus macrogranulosus, Torres Red-belly Toad. Vulnerable. Wild founders are likely to be available.
Has not been seen since 1960s.

Cycloramphus faustoi. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
Known to be in a protected park, but the Brazilian navy uses the park for training, and this destroys habitat. This species protects the eggs by sitting on them, and keeping them wet. Analog would be C. eleutherodactylus. Research into reproductive strategy required. This could be done in the field, but it is currently very difficult to undertake.

 

ARKive photo - Bokermannohyla vulcaniaeBokermannohyla vulcaniae. Vulnerable. Wild founders are likely to be available.
The major threat is rapid habitat destruction due to mining. Can use B. circumdata as an analog for this species.

Scinax alcatraz. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
A population is being maintained by Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo.
Known to be in a protected park, but the Brazilian navy uses the park for training, and this destroys habitat. Analog would be S. perpusillus. Can contact Cinthia Brasileiro for additional information.

Scinax faivovichi. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
Analog for this species is S. perpusillus. The entire population occurs outside protected areas (Marcio Martins, pers comm).

ARKive species - Santa Cruz dwarf frog (Physalaemus soaresi)Physalaemus soaresi, Santa Cruz Dwarf Frog. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
P. olfersii is an analog for this species. This species is found in a city park that is not protected.

6 species for which founders are not likely to be available and status of phylogenetic studies is unknown

Proceratophrys palustris. Data Deficient. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Known only from the type locality.

Thoropa lutzi. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Has very interesting reproductive biology (tadpoles are semi-terrestrial). Analog for this species is T. miliaris and T. taophora.

Thoropa petropolitana. Vulnerable. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Has very interesting reproductive biology (tadpoles are semi-terrestrial). Analog for this species is T. miliaris and T. taophora.

Dendropsophus limai. Data Deficient. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Known only from one locality, which is not protected (Felipe Toledo, pers comm). This species is probably a synonym of D. minutus.

Phrynomedusa appendiculata. Near Threatened. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Analog for this species is P. marginata or P. vanzolinii.

Holoaden bradei. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
H. luederwaldti can be used as an analog for this species. Has not been seen since 1976. Very little is known about the reproductive biology of this species.


Chile

4 species for which founders are likely to be available and status of phylogenetic studies is unknown

Alsodes montanus. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
“En peligro” y “rara” según la ley chilena. Los últimos dos años se ha encontrado al borde de una carretera en Puente Blanco (32 kms de Farellones) (Correa et al, 2008,Marco Mendez) en Camino a termas del Flaco (Sergio Araya, 2008 Boletín Museo Historia Natural).

Eupsophus contulmoensis. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.

Eupsophus migueli. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
“En peligro” y “rara” por la ley chilena.

Insuetophrynus acarpicus. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
Está clasificada “en peligro” y “rara” según la ley chilena. Se encontró una población cerca del área descrita en Queule y Colegual Alto(Marco Mendez).

5 species for which founders are not likely to be available and status of phylogenetic studies is unknown

Telmatobius pefauri. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Está clasificada como “en peligro” y “rara” por la ley chilena (A los todos los telmatobius se les dice jampato”).

Telmatobius zapahuirensis. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Está en el mismo habitat que T. pefauri. Es endémica. Telmatobius en general son especies con muy pocos individuos que han subsistido así por mucho tiempo y son mjy raras para permitir colectar fundadores para cría en cautiverio.

ARKive photo - Alsodes tumultuosus in waterAlsodes tumultuosus. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
“En peligro” y “rara” según la ley chilena.

Alsodes vanzolinii. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Rhinoderma rufum. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Está clasificada como “insuficientemente conocida” y “rara” según la ley chilena. Potencial educativo por estrategia reproductiva y desarrollo. Para conocer biología reproductiva.


Colombia

25 species for which the availability of founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

ARKive species - Huila stubfoot toad (Atelopus ebenoides)Atelopus ebenoides, Sapito Arlequín Negro. Critically Endangered
Cauca. Poblaciones en la localida típica. En Municipio de Totoló. Loc. Típica. Amenazada. Pob. Pequeña Laguna San Rafael. PNN Puracé- . Boyacá. Historia Natural. Tesis (A. Acosta). Experiencia en cautiverio- Comp reproductivo. 2007- Reportada población del Norte. Pob del Sur- Rolando Gutierrez- Cascada San Nicolas- Encuentra ejemplar en la localidad. Zona de amortiguación de PNN. Zona de litigio- PNN y MMA. Evaluar Chytridiomicosis. No hay confirmados reportes. Cultivos de papa con impacto a las corrientes de agua por sedimentación. Fragmentación como amenaza importante.

Atelopus eusebianus, Sapito Arlequín Malbasár. Critically Endangered
Municipio de Malbasar- Cauca- 2003- laguna San Rafael- PNN Puracé. Iguales amenazas que ebenoides. Poco ejemplares en la loc. Típica max 10 ejem. Por localidad. 2005- no hay datos de las especies. Estudios en campo realizados. Evaluar Chytridiomicosis. No hay confirmados reportes. Cultivos de papa con impacto a las corrientes de agua por sedimentación. Fragmentación como amenaza importante.

Atelopus famelicus. Critically Endangered
Sin. Atelopus negretii. Zona de dificil acceso. Dep Cauca Zona de amortiguación de PNN Munchique. Cultivos ilegales y laboratorios (coca). No hay datos por dificil acceso. Perdida de hábitat y fragmentación. Fumigaciones. Zona Minada. Falta de presencia del gobierno.

Atelopus farci, Arlequín de Alban. Critically Endangered
Problemas de orden social- No hay invetigación. Sólo hay descripción. No hay datos de Chitridiomicosis. Posiblemente extinto en vida libre a pesar de búsqueda.

Atelopus longibrachius, Arlequín de Brazos largos. Endangered
Se propone cambia a categoría CR. Cauca (el Tambo Huicitó). Fumigaciones, cultivos, problemas de orden público. Rango altitudinal más amplio que A famelicus. Rescate – por las amenazas a pesar de no existir datos de la especie. Posiblemente extinto en vida libre por no poder ir al sitio.

Atelopus minutulus. Critically Endangered
Se tienen datos anteriores (1985). Pero últimamente no existe información en localidades típicas. Alto de Chilajala (colecta de renacuajos) Areas con problemas sociales. No se ha confirmado la presencia del Hongo. Destrucción del hábitat- agriculatura y ganadería.

Atelopus monohernandezi, Arlequín de Virolin. Critically Endangered
Localidad Típica. Santander- Agrosistemas y presión antrópica. Agroquímicos. Quebradas destruidas. Se encuentra en la zona de amortiguación del Santuario. No se ha confirmado la presencia del Hongo.

Atelopus pedimarmoratus, Arlequín de Guavio. Critically Endangered
Cundinamarca. Zona con problemas grandes de alteración. Cultivo de papa. Faltan datos de distribución. No hay datos desde el 63 y al parecer no está en colección. Posiblemente extinta. No se ha confirmado la presencia del Hongo.

Atelopus subornatus. Critically Endangered
Cundinamarca. Localidad Típica destruida. 2005- Se encuentra la población con 6 ejemplares. Se tiene conocimiento de la localidad. J. V . Rueda. Investigacion para la conservación- Se requiere reevaluar la selección a partir de experiencias en cautiverio y de confirmar las amenazas. Entrenamento con especies de zonas altas y bajas.

Cochranella megacheira. Endangered
Amazonía. 4 Localidades. Cultivos ilícitos. Ampliación frontera agrícola. Caquetá y Putumayo.

Colostethus edwardsi. Critically Endangered
Dos Localidades: La Calera, Choachí. Cueva. Endémica. Presión Antrópica. JM. Rengifo Datos. No se ha encontrado a pesar de búsqueda. Localidad Típica destruida y urbanizada.

Colostethus juanii. Critically Endangered
Localidad Típica: Villavicencio. Asociada a Bosques Húmedos Tropicales. Pidemonte. A. Acosta colecta 2005. Presión antrópica por destrucción de habitat. No se ha visto en otras localidades.

Colostethus mertensi. Endangered
Cauca. PNN Munchique. Quebrada Sopladero. Sólo se conocer por la localidad Típica. 2004– Tarán Grant. No se encontraron en la localidad típica 2004 (F. Lopez).

Colostethus pulchellus. Vulnerable
Nariño, Cauca, Taran Grant- Sinon. C. pinguis. Humedales que se están drenando para cultivo de papa. Conaminación de fuentes de agua- Ganadería.

Colostethus ranoides. Endangered
“Fantasma”. Problemas taxonómicos. Villavicencio. No se ha encontrado a pesar de búsqueda. Descripción dada no fue clara y no se conocer ejemplares adicionales al ejemplar tipo. “Posiblemente extinta” pero se requiere confirmar con la taxonomía.

Epipedobates ingeri. Critically Endangered
Caquetá. Sólo se conoce la localidad típica por un solo individuo. Presión por cultivos ilícitos. No hay datos. Amenazas fuertes sobre el hábitat.

ARKive photo - Golden poison frog, anterior viewPhyllobates terribilis, Golden Poison Frog. Rana Venenosa Dorada. Endangered
Cauca. Localidad Típica Quebrada Guanguí- Cuenca del río Saija. Se tiene información de distribución más amplia. Criterio de amenza basado en la distribución. Bsoques utlización de madera. Colonización. Comunidades Negras, Comunidades Indígenas. No se sabe qué tan común es en las localidades. Reportada como común por los indígenas. Utilización de las ranas para flechas.

Cryptobatrachus fuhrmanni. Vulnerable
Cundinamarca, Tolima, Santander. Localidad de alta intervención antrópica.

Cryptobatrachus nicefori, Ranas escondidas. Critically Endangered
Localidad Típica: Boyacá- Salina. Otra población 2006- Localidad en Casanare.

Eleutherodactylus mnionaetes, Rana de Lluvia del Musgo. Endangered
Boyacá. Datos de la Localidad. Páramo de Mamapacha. Presión antrópica en el norte fuerte por deforestación, ganadería, papa (en menor grado). Sur: Reserva privada sociedad civil no se ha hecho prospección.

ARKive species - Antioquia marsupial frog (Gastrotheca bufona)Gastrotheca bufona. Endangered
Antioquia, Caldas. Preguntar: Lynch. Animales considerados “raros” por dificultades de colección. Presencia en zonas protegidas pero con grado de intervención.

Gastrotheca espeletia, Rana Marsupial de la Cocha. Endangered
Nariño. Área muy pequeña. Laguna de la Cocha. Area de distribución MUY intervenida. Presión antrópica- papa, cebolla. Alta contaminación. Falta reporte de la especie en la zona por falta de investigación- Isla de la Corota (Santuario).

Bolitoglossa capitana. Critically Endangered
Simpátrica con A. farsi. Posiblemente extinta.

Bolitoglossa hypacra. Vulnerable
Endémica del páramo de Frontino. Hasta 2500 msnm. Presion antrópica en los ambientes orignales. Páramo para pastoreo. Problemas de orden público.

Bolitoglossa pandi, Salamandra de Pandi. Endangered
Cundinamarca. Municipio Pandi. Franz Kaston. Zona con cafetales, afectada por agricultura. Falta prospeccion para definir. Otra población en Supatá (Cund) (A. Acosta 2007). Registro Erroneo en la Laguna de Pedro Pablo.


Costa Rica

12 species for which founders are likely to be available and status of phylogenetic studies is unknown

Atelopus varius, Harlequin Frog. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
Problema con manejo de tierra. Comercio ilegal. Importancia Cientifica: Potencial para uso medico.

Colostethus nubicola. Near Threatened. Wild founders are likely to be available.

ARKive photo - Costa Rica brook frog, close upDuellmanohyla uranochroa, Costa Rica Brook Frog. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
Problema principal cambio climatico y quitridio.

Hylomantis lemur. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.
Cambio climatico.

Isthmohyla angustilineata. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.

Isthmohyla pictipes. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.

Isthmohyla rivularis. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.

Ptychohyla legleri. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.

Eleutherodactylus caryophyllaceus. Near Threatened. Wild founders are likely to be available.
Cambio climatico.

Eleutherodactylus pardalis. Near Threatened. Wild founders are likely to be available.

Rana vibicaria. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available.

Oedipina uniformis. Near Threatened. Wild founders are likely to be available.
No hay informacion suficiente sobre el grupo. No requiere esfuerzo de conservación, pero puede usarsr como experiencia para reproducción.

14 species for which founders are not likely to be available and status of phylogenetic studies is unknown

ARKive species - Chiriqui harlequin frog (Atelopus chiriquiensis)Atelopus chiriquiensis, Chiriqui Harlequin Frog. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Principal problema cambio climatico y quitridio. Comercio para mascota. Posiblemente extinto.

Atelopus senex. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Posiblemente extinto, ahora en Costa Rica.

Bufo fastidiosus. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Posiblemente extinto, ahora en Costa Rica. Cambio climatico y quitridio.

Hyloscirtus colymba. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Posiblemente extinta para Costa Rica.

ARKive species - Common tree frog (Isthmohyla calypsa)Isthmohyla calypsa, Common Tree Frog. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Distintivo Biologico: Presenta importancia por tuberculos exagerados, esto es unico al menos en Costa Rica.

Isthmohyla debilis. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

 

ARKive species - Starrett’s tree frog (Isthmohyla tica)Isthmohyla tica, Starrett’s Tree Frog. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Isthmohyla xanthosticta. Data Deficient. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor andi. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor angelicus. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor catalinae. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor fleischmanni. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor obesus. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor rhyacobatrachus. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.


Dominica

1 species for which founders are unlikely to be available and a phylogenetic study has not yet been done

ARKive photo - Mountain chickenLeptodactylus fallax, Mountain Chicken. Critically Endangered. Has been captive bred to F2. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
There has been 99% population decline on Montserrat in the last ten years (R. Gibson, pers. comm. March 2011). Re-introduction has taken place on Montserrat. Also released in Puerto Rico in the 1960s for food, but this failed. Chytrid has been the largest threat, but collection for food has alos decreased numbers. This species has a unique reproductive biology. Is on the Dominican coat of arms. Is being re-introduced into known chytrid habitats as a study species into mitigating chytrid (R. Gibson, pers. comm. March 2011). Current research is underway into chytrid migiation, disease resistance, radio-telemetry etc.


Dominican Republic

1 species for which it is unknown if founders are available but for which a phylogenetic study has been completed

Eleutherodactylus rucillensis, Rucilla Streamside Frog. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Probably extinct (M. Rodriguez, pers. comm. March 2011).

1 species for which it is unknown if founders are available and for which a phylogenetic study has not yet been completed
Peltophryne fluviatica, Tiburon Burrowing Frog. Critically Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Thought to be locally extinct (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011).

2 species for which founders are not likely to be available and for which a phylogenetic study has not yet been completed

Peltophryne fracta, La Hotte Big-legged Frog. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Possibly extinct – has not been seen since 1969. Habitat is degraded due to cattle (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011).

Eleutherodactylus schmidti, Hispaniolan Streamside Frog. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Possibly extinct, last seen in 1986 (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011). Education potential is high to talk about extinctions and protection of the environment (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011).


Ecuador

7 species that are likely to have founders available and for which a phylogenetic study has been completed

ARKive photo - Atelopus nanay pair in amplexusAtelopus nanay, Arlequín de Tres Cruces. Critically Endangered. Captive bred to F1. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Mantenidos en el Centro de Conservación de Anfibios Mazán (2009-2012). Esta especie ha sido utilizada como parte de medicina tradicional. Puede ser utilizada como una especie análoga para Atelopus ignescens.

Atelopus spumarius, Jambato amazónico. Vulnerable. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Se decide cambiar el estado de conservación a Vulnerable. Esta especie podría se analoga para otras especies como Atelopus sp. de Limon u otras especies de zonas bajas de la costa (por ejemplo, Atelopus elegans).

ARKive species - Buckley's giant glass frog (Centrolene buckleyi)Centrolene buckleyi, Rana de cristal altoandina de Buckley. Vulnerable. Captive bred to F1. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Esta especie ha sido reproducida y mantenida en la Balsa de los Sapos (PUCE). Esta especie ya ha sido manejada y podría ser utilizada para educar a las personas de las ciudades donde ocurría.

Hyloxalus delatorreae. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.

Hyloxalus jacobuspetersi, Rana cohete de Quito. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Was previously Colostethus jacobpetersi. Mantenida en la Balsa de los Sapos (PUCE 2007-2012). Tiene el potencial de educar a las personas de las ciudades donde ocurría.

Nelsonophryne aequatorialis, Rana diminuta de Cuenca. Least Concern. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Mantenidos en laboratorio en varios centros Balsa de los Sapos, Jambatu, Amaru.

Pristimantis quinquagesimus. Vulnerable. Not held in captivity to date. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.

3 species that are likely to have founders available and for which a phylogenetic study has not yet been completed

Pristimantis modipeplus. Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Esta especie se determina que está amenazada por la erupción del volcán Tungurahua. Sería la especie más urgente de rescatar.

Pristimantis pastazensis. Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Esta especie se determina que está amenazada por la erupción del volcán Tungurahua. Sería la especie más urgente de rescatar.

Pristimantis tungurahua. Not held in captivity to date. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Se evalua el estado de conservación y se establece que es En Peligro.

3 species for which founders are not likely to be available but for which a phylogenetic study has been completed
Atelopus bomolochos, ARKive species - Azuay stubfoot toad (Atelopus bomolochos)Arlequín de Cuenca. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Mantenidos en el Museo de Zoología (QCAZ) (2002).

Atelopus exiguus, Arlequín de Mazán. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Mantenidos en el Zoologico Amaru, Cuenca (2005-2009) y en la Balsa de los Sapos (2009-2011).

Hyloxalus anthracinus. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Mantenidos en la Balsa de los Sapos (2010).

12 species for which it is unknown if founders are available and for which a phylogenetic study has been completed

Atelopus ignescens, Jambato. Possibly Extinct. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Existen áreas protegidas en su rango de distribución pero no alcanzan el 50% del rango. La especie se cree que está extinta en la naturaleza, pues no ha sido vista desde 1988. Tiene una significación cultural importante pues era utilizada para medicina tradicional en los Andes y además la ciudad de Ambato debe su nombre a esta rana. La supervivencia de esta especie va a depender de investigación realizada en laboratorio. Cuando fue común fue mantenido en laboratorio para investigación embriológica.

Atelopus pastuso, Arlequín pastuso. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Las causas de su desaparición aun son desconocidas.

Atelopus podocarpus, Arlequín de Podocarpus. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.

Osornophryne puruanta. Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Esta especie fue mantenida en el Museo QCAZ alrededor del año 2000.

Centrolene geckoideum, Rana de cristal gigante. Vulnerable. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Esta especie es el centrolenido más grande conocido.

Centrolene pipilatum, Rana de Cristal Cantora. Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.

Gastrotheca guentheri, Rana marsupial dentada. Vulnerable. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Es la unica especie que tiene dientes en la mandíbula inferior.

Hyloscirtus tapichalaca, Rana torrentícola de Tapichalaca. Data Deficient. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Se considera el estado de conservación de esta especie a En peligro.

Pristimantis simonbolivari. Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.

Pristimantis truebae, Cutín de Trueb. Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.

Strabomantis anomalus. Least Concern. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.

Strabomantis necerus. Vulnerable. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.

25 species for which it is unknown if founders are available and for which a phylogenetic study has not yet been completed

Atelopus angelito, Arlequín angelito. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Atelopus arthuri, Arlequín de Bolívar. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Atelopus balios, Arlequín del río Pescado. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Mantenidos en cautiverio por el Centro Jambatu.

Atelopus guanujo, Puca Sapo. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

ARKive species - Longnose stubfoot toad (Atelopus longirostris)Atelopus longirostris, Arlequín esquelético. Possibly Extinct. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Esta especie también es considerada extinta.

Atelopus lynchi, Arlequín de Lynch. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Las causas de su desaparición aun son desconocidas.

Atelopus mindoensis, Arlequín de Mindo. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Las causas de su desaparición aun son desconocidas.

Atelopus nepiozomus, Arlequín de Suro. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Se decide incluir esta especie Data Deficient porque existen registros recientes en el sur del país. Las causas de su desaparición son desconocidas.

ARKive species - Onore’s harlequin frog (Atelopus onorei)Atelopus onorei, Arlequín de Onore. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Las causas de su desaparición aun son desconocidas.

Atelopus orcesi, Arlequín de Orcés. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Las causas de su desaparición aun son desconocidas.

ARKive species - Schmidt's stubfoot toad (Atelopus pachydermus)Atelopus pachydermus. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Las causas de su desaparición aun son desconocidas.

Atelopus palmatus, Arlequín de Andersson. Data Deficient. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Podría ser considerada análoga para especies del género ubicadas en las estribaciones de los Andes. Se mantienen algunos individuos en la Balsa de los Sapos (2010-2012).

Atelopus petersi, Arlequín de Peters. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Las causas de su desaparición aun son desconocidas.

Atelopus planispina, Arlequín de planispina. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Aun se discute el estatus de esta especie con respecto a Atelopus palmatus.

Rhaebo blombergi, Bamburé. Near Threatened. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Esta especie es el bufonido más grande conocido.

Rhaebo caeruleostictus, Sapo de Chanchan. Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Rhinella amabilis, Sapo amable. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Centrolene condor, Rana de cristal del Cóndor. Data Deficient. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Centrolene gemmatum, Rana de Cristal de Cotopaxi. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Cochranella balionota, Rana de Cristal de Puntos Canela. Vulnerable. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Se cambió el género a la taxonomía más reconocida Cochranella balionota.

Nymphargus anomalus, Rana de Cristal Anómala. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Andinobates abditus, Rana venenosa de Azuela. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Hyloxalus maquipucuna. Data Deficient. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Hyloxalus mystax. Data Deficient. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Strabomantis cerastes. Least Concern. Not held in captivity to date. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

4 species for which founders are not likely to be available and for which a phylogenetic study has not yet been completed

Osornophryne talipes, Osornosapo trompudo. Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Telmatobius cirrhacelis. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.

Telmatobius niger. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Mantenida en el Museo QCAZ a inicios de la década de los 90. Esta especie ha sido utilizada como parte de medicina tradicional.

Telmatobius vellardi. Critically Endangered. Not held in captivity to date. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.


France

1 species for which the availability of founders and the status of a phylogenetic study is unknown

Rana grafi. Vulnerable.


Greece

2 species for which the availability of founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

ARKive photo - Lyciasalamandra helverseni on mossLyciasalamandra helverseni. Vulnerable.

Lyciasalamandra luschani. Endangered.


Guatemala

1 species for which founders are likely to be available and it is not known if a phylogenetic study has been completed

Incilius bocourti. Least Concern. Wild founders are likely to be available.
Aún no existen áreas protegidas en la cual se encuentre el 50% de las poblaciones, pero existen procesos para declarar áreas protegidas donde se encuentra esta especie (Carlos Vásquez, Manuel Acevedo).

1 species for which it is unknown if founders are likely to be available or if a phylogenetic study has been completed
Incilius tutelarius. Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Existe interés de comprar tierras en las montañas de Cuilco. Su reproducción es similar a I. campbelli.

32 species for which founders are likely to be available and it is not known if a phylogenetic study has been completed

Craugastor adamastus. Data Deficient. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor amniscola. Data Deficient. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor inachus. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor matudai. Vulnerable. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor palenque. Data Deficient. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor rivulus. Vulnerable. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Craugastor rupinius. Least Concern. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Pobremente abundante.

Craugastor sabrinus. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Pobremente abundante.

Craugastor sandersoni. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Pobremente abundante.

Craugastor trachydermus. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Bromeliohyla bromeliacia. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
En la década de 1970 era demasiado común, actualente es muy difícil de encontrar (Jonathan Campbell).

Exerodonta perkinsi. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Hyla bocourti. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Considerada ya como especie extinta.

Hyla walkeri. Vulnerable. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
En algunos sitios se ha vuelto poco común.

Plectrohyla acanthodes. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
La mayoría de la condición de peligro de las Plectrohyla no puede o no podrá ser revertida a tiempo. La mayoría de la condición de peligro de las Plectrohyla no puede o no podrá ser revertida a tiempo.

Plectrohyla avia. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Plectrohyla glandulosa. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

ARKive photo - Hartweg's spikethumb frog on mossPlectrohyla hartwegi. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Plectrohyla ixil. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Plectrohyla pokomchi. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Plectrohyla tecunumani. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Esta especie fue colectada alrededor de 1995 en una cueva en todos santos, luego se colectaron renacuajos en el 2003, y en el 2009 no se encontraron ni renacuajos ni adultos. Se consiera esta especie extinta (Jonathan Campbell, Manuel Acevedo, Jacobo Conde).

Plectrohyla teuchestes. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Ptychohyla dendrophasma. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Para la mayoría de Ptychohyla se desconoce la mitigación de amenazas.

Ptychohyla sanctaecrucis. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Se encontró una nueva localidad a 3km al este de la localidad tipo, actualmente existe exploración minera en el lugar.

Bolitoglossa flavimembris. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Bolitoglossa flaviventris. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Dendrotriton bromeliacius. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.

Dendrotriton cuchumatanus. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Esta especie fue colectada alrededor de 1995 en una cueva en todos santos, luego se colectaron renacuajos en el 2003, y en el 2009 no se encontraron ni renacuajos ni adultos. Se consiera esta especie extinta (Campbell, Manuel Acevedo, Jacobo Conde).

Dendrotriton rabbi. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Destrucción de su hábitat especialmente bromelias la pone en riesgo (Ted Papenfuss y Carlos Vásquez).

Nyctanolis pernix. Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
Especie muy sensible, ocurre solamente en bosque primario, muy bien conservado (Carlos Vásquez y Ted Papenfuss). Para la recuperación de la población el bosque debe estar en muy buenas condiciones.

Pseudoeurycea brunnata. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.
No ha sido encontrada desde 1978.

Pseudoeurycea exspectata. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required.


Haiti

1 species for which founders are likely to be available and for which a phylogenetic study has been completed

Eleutherodactylus caribe, Haitian Marsh Frog, Mangrove Frog. Critically Endangered. Captive bred to F1. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
100% of the population is outside protected habitat (C. Marte, pers. comm. March 2011). Known distribution of this species is very small (1.4 square km) (M. Rodriguez, pers. comm. March 2011). Has reticulated skin folds to avoid desiccation (lives in mangroves) (M. Rodriguez, pers. comm. March 2011).

5 species for which the availability of founders is unknown and for which a phylogenetic study has been completed
Eleutherodactylus chlorophenax, La Hotte Giant Frog. Critically Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Species has not been seen since 1985 (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011). Requires research into captive husbandry. Very little is known about its natural history (M. Landestoy, M. Rodriguez, pers. comm. March 2011).

Eleutherodactylus corona, Hispaniolan Crowned Frog. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Does not exist in protected habitat at all, in an area of about 6 sq km. The surrounding area is being logged (M. Rodriguez, pers. comm. March 2011). Very little is known about its natural history (M. Rodriguez, pers. comm. March 2011). Check with B. Hedges about captive history.

Eleutherodactylus dolomedes, Hispaniolan Ventriloquial Frog. Critically Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Only known from 4 specimens, and all outside of protected areas (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011). Main threat (habitat destruction) is not currently being managed at all (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011). Noted that semen is currently cryobanked. No knowledge of reproductive history and no females have been seen. Known as a ventriloquist (sounds like birds) and has a very loud call (J. Timyan, pers. comm. March 2011).

Eleutherodactylus glanduliferoides, La Selle Grass Frog. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Known from a restricted area close to a naturally protected area, but unsure if it actually exists in the protected area (J. Timyan, pers. comm. March 2011). Current habitat is not very suitable for future reintroductions – prone to fires and grazing for agriculture (J. Timyan, pers. comm. March 2011). Last seen in 1985 (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011).

Eleutherodactylus limbensis, Haitian Streamside Frog. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Good educational stories about species bordering on extinction (M. Rodriguez, pers. comm. March 2011).

3 species for which the availability of founders is unknown and for which a phylogenetic study has not been completed

Eleutherodactylus lucioi, Pallid Rock Frog. Critically Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Only known from the holotype. Possibly extinct (M. Rodriguez, pers. comm. March 2011).

Eleutherodactylus sciagraphus, La Hotte Striped-legged Frog. Critically Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Not known to persist in disturbed habitat (J. Timyan, M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011).

Eleutherodactylus semipalmatus, Tiburon Stream Frog. Critically Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Has not been seen since 1985 (M. Rodriguez, pers. comm. March 2011). Nothing is known about the biology of the species. Education potential is high to talk about extinctions and protection of the environment (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011).

1 species for which wild founders are not likely to be available and for which a phylogenetic study has not been completed
Eleutherodactylus schmidti, Hispaniolan Streamside Frog. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Possibly extinct, last seen in 1986 (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011). Education potential is high to talk about extinctions and protection of the environment (M. Landestoy, pers. comm. March 2011).


Hong Kong and Guangdong Provinces

29 species for which the availability of founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

Bufo andrewsi. Least Concern.
Collection is an important threat. Education of the public would be important.  Used in traditional Chinese medicine. Some research is being done on medicinal use but fewer than 6 species may have these same characteristics.

Bufo gargarizans. Least Concern.
Primary threats are localized and include habitat loss, water pollution, and road mortality. Also harvested for food. Found only in north Guangdong Province. Public education would be important for this species. Research on this species regarding secretions used in Chinese medicine. Three species are available for such research.

ARKive species - Common Chinese tree frog (Hyla chinensis)Hyla chinensis, Chinese Tree Toad. Least Concern.
Threats are habitat destruction and degradation. Lives on forest edge and breeds in rice paddies and ponds.  Important habitats are being lost. In pet trade but not in large numbers.

Hyla simplex, South China Tree Toad. Least Concern.
Habitat degradation may be an important threat. Found in forest edge and agricultural fields. Good species to use for education.

Leptolalax liui, Leaf-litter Toad. Least Concern.
Hydroelectric and habitat loss and degradation, particularly in Guangdong Province; also development that cannot be reversed. Not common in Hong Kong.

Ophryophryne pachyproctus, Mengla Narrow-mouthed Horned Toad. Least Concern.
Primary threats are deforestation, dams, and power plants. Dams occur in protected areas so threats are unreversible. Little is known about breeding biology.

Vibrissaphora liui. Least Concern.
Logging, development, and damming are important threats. Used as food in Guanxi but not in Guangdong Province. Much research on this species.  Mustache is used in territorial behavior and competition for mates. Egg mass is symmetrical but this is consistent among the genus.

Xenophrys boettgeri, Pale-Shouldered Horned Toad. Least Concern.
Deforestation and hydroelectric dams are important threats. 

Xenophrys kuatunensis, Kuatun Horned Toad. Least Concern.
Deforestation is an important threat. Reproductive biology is not well-known.

Xenophrys mangshanensis, Mangshan Horned Toad. Near Threatened.
Dams and habitat degradation are important threats. Most of distribution is within nature reserves, but dams are still constructed there. This is a major concern and is unlikely to change. Little is known about its breeding biology.

Xenophrys minor, Lttle Horned Toad. Least Concern.
Deforestation and dams are important threats. All tadpoles in this genus overwinter so hydroelectric is a particular problem.

Kalophrynus interlineatus, Spotted Narrow-mouthed Frog. Least Concern.
Very rare in Guangdong Province; most populations in Hong Kong are outside of protected areas.  Development cannot be reversed. Uses abandoned agricultural fields and these remain as good habitat, but then these are developed for village houses. Most populations in Hong Kong occur in country parks; very rare in Guangdong Province. Priority will need to be given to managing habitats for this species in country parks.

Amolops chunganensis. Least Concern.
Major threats are habitat destruction due to deforestation and hydroelectric plants. Relatively more well-studied than the others. Small population in north Guangdong Province located within a protected area.

Amolops ricketti, South China Cascade Frog. Least Concern.
Discovered in Hong Kong in 2004.  Occurs only on Lantau Island in Hong Kong.

Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, Chinese Bullfrog. Least Concern.
Was a flagship species in China for conservation education because it used to be very common.

Limnonectes fujianensis, Big-headed Frog. Least Concern.
Rana kuhlii. People in Guangdong Province collect this animal thinking it is Paa and sell it in the food markets. Education needed.

ARKive photo - Little spiny frogPaa exilispinosa, Lesser Spiny Frog. Vulnerable.

Paa spinosa, Giant Spiny Frog. Vulnerable.
Despite commercial farming in Guangdong Province, this species is still being collected from the wild.

Rana chloronota, Green Cascade Frog. Least Concern.
Rana chloronota; Hydroelectric is a problem in Guangdong Province; skin has widespread chemical properties that are species-specific; chemicals have anti-bacterial properties. Produces sub-sonic sound.

Rana macrodactyla, Three-striped Grass Frog. Least Concern.
Lowland species found in marshes, mudflats.

Rana margaretae. Least Concern.
Some research has been done on the medicinal use of this species but medicinal qualities are not unique to this species.

Rana nigromaculata, Black-Spotted Pond Frog. Near Threatened.
Collected for food. Attempted farming of this species was not successful in Guangdong Province but has been successful in other parts of China. Conservation role should be education because people used to see this species in agricultural fields but it doesn’t occur there anymore. 

Rana schmackeri, Piebald Odorous Frog. Least Concern.
Stream species affected by hydroelectric dams but is still widespeard and common.

Rana taipehensis, Two-striped Grass Frog. Least Concern.

Rana versabilis. Least Concern.
Stream breeder that is affected by hydroelectric dams but is widespread and abundant in north Guangdong Province.

Rhacophorus dennysi, Denny’s Whipping Frog. Least Concern.
Polypedates dennysi. Forest species affected by logging and forest degradation.

ARKive species - Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus)Andrias davidianus, Chinese Giant Salamander. Critically Endangered.
Collection for food is an important threat. Captive farming is very successful – produced 400,000 and have kept animals for four generations.  But almost extinct in the wild. Supplementation to the wild population would result in increased collection from wild populations. Unique biology and only species in this genus in the region. Research on skin secretions – may have anti-aging properties. Chose research dependent option but we have few details about this research.

Pachytriton labiatus, Spoteless Stout Newt. Least Concern.
Used in traditional Chinese medicine, but on a small scale, and is collected for pet trade. Wild-caught animals are sold in markets in Hong Kong and shipped to Europe.

Paramesotriton chinensis, Chinese Warty Newt. Least Concern.
Collected for the pet trade. Would be a good animal to use in education.


Iran

2 species for which the availability of founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

ARKive photo - Luristan newt, head detailNeurergus kaiseri. Critically Endangered.

Neurergus microspilotus. Endangered.


Jamaica

1 species for which the availability of founders is unknown and a phylogenetic study has been completed

Eleutherodactylus orcutti, Jamaican Stream Frog. Critically Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
May be extinct – the only aquatic/stream dwelling (web-footed) Eleutherodactylus spp. – chytrid fungus may be implicated in its rapid apparent demise since mid-1980′s. Urgent research required to determine continued persistence in wild and if so, what threats it faces. Spp. may be a live-bearer. If specimens were found and a rescue mounted it would be necessary to intensively manage and research the individuals for both husbandry development, life history and, if implicated, the role of chytrid infection.


Madagascar

18 species for which the availability of founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

Aglyptodactylus laticeps. Endangered.

ARKive photo - Boehmantis microtympanumBoehmantis microtympanum. Endangered.
Likely M. grandidieri and M. guttulatus it is a species captured for alimentation.

Boophis williamsi. Critically Endangered.

Gephyromantis horridus. Endangered.

Gephyromantis silvanus. Endangered.

Gephyromantis webbi. Endangered.

Mantidactylus madecassus. Endangered.

ARKive photo - Mantidactylus paulianiMantidactylus pauliani. Critically Endangered.

Spinomantis brunae. Endangered.

Spinomantis guibei. Endangered.

Spinomantis microtis. Endangered.

Anodonthyla rouxae. Endangered.

Madecassophryne truebae. Endangered.

Platypelis alticola. Endangered.

Platypelis mavomavo. Endangered.

ARKive species - Nosy Be giant tree frog (Platypelis milloti)Platypelis milloti. Endangered.

Platypelis tetra. Endangered.

Rhombophryne brevipes. Endangered.

Rhombophryne guentherpetersi. Endangered.
This classification (Endangered) is in need of verification. We do not know yet on how many localities it is known on Tsaratanana and which is its real EOO and AOO.


Malaysia

98 species for which the availability of founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

Ansonia fuliginea. Vulnerable.

ARKive species - Mesilau stream toad (Ansonia guibei)Ansonia guibei. Endangered.

Ansonia hanitschi. Near Threatened.

Ansonia leptopus. Near Threatened.

Ansonia longidigita. Near Threatened.

Ansonia malayana. Least Concern.

Ansonia minuta. Near Threatened.

ARKive species - Penang stream toad (Ansonia penangensis)Ansonia penangensis. Vulnerable.

Ansonia spinulifer. Near Threatened.

Ansonia tiomanica. Vulnerable.

Bufo divergens. Least Concern.

Bufo juxtasper. Least Concern.

Bufo kumquat. Endangered.

Bufo macrotis. Least Concern.

Bufo parvus. Least Concern.

Bufo quadriporcatus. Least Concern.

Leptophryne borbonica. Least Concern.

Pedostibes hosii. Least Concern.

Pelophryne brevipes. Least Concern.

Pelophryne misera. Vulnerable.

Pseudobufo subasper. Least Concern.

ARKive species - Kinabalu dwarf litter frog (Leptobrachella baluensis)Leptobrachella baluensis. Vulnerable.

Leptobrachella mjobergi. Least Concern.

Leptobrachium abbotti. Least Concern.

Leptobrachium hendricksoni. Least Concern.

Leptobrachium montanum. Least Concern.

Leptobrachium nigrops. Least Concern.

Leptolalax dringi. Near Threatened.

Leptolalax gracilis. Near Threatened.

ARKive species - Asian toad (Leptolalax hamidi)Leptolalax hamidi. Vulnerable.

Leptolalax heteropus. Least Concern.

Leptolalax pelodytoides. Least Concern.

Leptolalax pictus. Vulnerable.

Megophrys nasuta. Least Concern.

Xenophrys aceras. Least Concern.

Xenophrys longipes. Near Threatened.

Calluella guttulata. Least Concern.

Chaperina fusca. Least Concern.

Kalophrynus heterochirus. Least Concern.

Kalophrynus intermedius. Vulnerable.

Kalophrynus pleurostigma. Least Concern.

Metaphrynella pollicaris. Least Concern.

Metaphrynella sundana. Least Concern.

Microhyla berdmorei, Large Pygmy Frog. Least Concern.

Microhyla borneensis. Least Concern.

Microhyla ornata, Ornamented Pygmy Frog. Least Concern.

Microhyla palmipes, Palmated Chorus Frog. Least Concern.

Microhyla perparva. Near Threatened.

Microhyla petrigena. Near Threatened.

Micryletta inornata. Least Concern.

Phrynella pulchra. Least Concern.

Amolops larutensis. Least Concern.

ARKive species - Nicobar frog (Fejervarya nicobariensis)Fejervarya nicobariensis, Nicobar Frog. Least Concern.

Huia cavitympanum, Hole-In-The-Head Frog. Least Concern.

Ingerana baluensis. Least Concern.

Ingerana tenasserimensis. Least Concern.

Limnonectes finchi. Least Concern.

Limnonectes leporinus, Giant River Frog. Least Concern.

Limnonectes palavanensis. Least Concern.

Limnonectes plicatellus. Least Concern.

Meristogenys kinabaluensis. Near Threatened.

Meristogenys orphnocnemis. Least Concern.

Meristogenys phaeomerus. Near Threatened.

Meristogenys poecilus. Near Threatened.

Meristogenys whiteheadi. Near Threatened.

Rana banjarana. Near Threatened.

Rana luctuosa. Least Concern.

Rana raniceps. Least Concern.

Rana siberu. Least Concern.

Rana signata. Least Concern.

Staurois latopalmatus. Least Concern.

Staurois natator. Least Concern.

ARKive photo - Green-spotted rock frog portraitStaurois tuberilinguis. Near Threatened.

Nyctixalus pictus. Near Threatened.

Philautus amoenus. Vulnerable.

Philautus hosii. Near Threatened.

Philautus ingeri. Vulnerable.

Philautus longicrus. Near Threatened.

Philautus mjobergi. Near Threatened.

Philautus petersi. Least Concern.

Philautus saueri. Vulnerable.

Philautus tectus. Vulnerable.

Philautus vermiculatus. Least Concern.

Rhacophorus angulirostris. Endangered.

Rhacophorus bipunctatus. Least Concern.

Rhacophorus cyanopunctatus. Least Concern.

Rhacophorus dulitensis. Near Threatened.

Rhacophorus everetti. Near Threatened.

Rhacophorus fasciatus. Vulnerable.

Rhacophorus gauni. Near Threatened.

Rhacophorus harrissoni. Near Threatened.

Rhacophorus kajau. Near Threatened.

Rhacophorus nigropalmatus, Wallace’s Flying Frog. Least Concern.

Rhacophorus reinwardtii. Near Threatened.

Rhacophorus rufipes. Near Threatened.

Theloderma asperum. Least Concern.

Theloderma horridum. Least Concern.

Theloderma leporosum. Least Concern – Indonesia, Malaysia


Mexico

78 species for which the availability of founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

Bufo californicus, Arroyo Toad. Endangered.
El area de distribucion publicada no coincide con la realidad, es mucho menor debido a la reduccion del habitat apropiado.

Bufo cavifrons, Mountain Toad. Endangered.
Muy escaso y su habitat es muy especializado.

Bufo macrocristatus. Vulnerable.
Hay registros del 2006 de los Chimalapas, es muy sensible a los cambios del habitat.

Bufo spiculatus. Endangered.
Muy escaso y su habitat es muy especializado, pero hay un registro en 1995 en Sierra Mixe. Su rango esta por debajo de la reserva de Comaltepec, Oaxaca.

Bufo tacanensis. Endangered.
Registrado en el 2006 en el Cerro Mozotal. Es una especie rara y esta en la parte mas alta de la sierra.

Charadrahyla chaneque. Endangered.
Es rara, ultimo registro en el 2005 pero esta en habitat bien conservados. En las localidades en Chiapas se ha reportado el hongo. No se han encontrado renacuajos en mucho tiempo.

ARKive species - Charadrahyla (Charadrahyla nephila) Charadrahyla nephila. Vulnerable.
Se conoce solo una poblacion en Sierra de Juarez. La zona registra la presencia de Bd. No hay registros recientes. En la Sierra Mixe ya no existe. Presenta muchos desafios de conservacion. El registro de Los Tuxtlas puede ser erroneo.

Duellmanohyla chamulae. Endangered.
Posiblemente extinta, no se ha observado aunque posiblemente aun exista.

Duellmanohyla ignicolor. Endangered.
Distribucion solo en Sierra de Juarez, Oaxaca.

ARKive species - Schmidt's mountain brook frog (Duellmanohyla schmidtorum)Duellmanohyla schmidtorum. Vulnerable.
Solo dos poblaciones conocidas, cerca de Volcan Tacana, Chiapas donde ya no se han registrado desde los 60s, ademas se ha registrado el BF y en Chimalapas, Oaxaca donde esta bien pero no es muy comun.

Exerodonta chimalapa. Endangered.
Se encontraron recientemente en la localidad tipo y en parte alta de la Sierra Atravesada. Se ha registrado el hongo en una especie asociada.

Exerodonta melanomma. Vulnerable.
Rango de distribucion amplia pero discontinua. Registro en San Gabriel Mixtepec, localidad que tiene Bd.

Hyla walkeri. Vulnerable.
En San Cristobal (disminuyendo) Pblo. Nuevo, Chiapas (ya no se ha registrado). Pblo. Montenbello, Chiapas (ya no se ha registrad).

Megastomatohyla mixe. Critically Endangered.
Colecta de renacuajo en el 2004, en la Sierra Mixe, Oaxaca. Distribuida en zona de manejo forestal.

Plectrohyla acanthodes. Critically Endangered.
Registrado Bd en la zona. Muy poco abundante. Solo 8 localidades. Adultos escasos. Distribución fragmentada.

Plectrohyla avia. Critically Endangered.
Muy poco abundante. Solo 1 localidad en el estado de Chiapas. Adultos escasos. Distribución fragmentada. Registros recientes en el Tacaná, Chiapas en riachuelo lleno de basura en 1 sq. mt.

Plectrohyla calthula. Critically Endangered.
2003 se colectaron renacuajos y metamorfos en Totontepec (localidad tipo).

Plectrohyla ephemera. Critically Endangered.
Descrita en base a un adulto. 2004 Renacuajos colectados no tenían piezas bucales, posiblemente atacados por Bd.

ARKive photo - Hartweg's spikethumb frog on mossPlectrohyla hartwegi. Critically Endangered.
Solo 4 poblaciones conocidas en Chiapas (Tacaná, El Triunfo, Cerro Tres Picos (R. Luna- hace 3 años) y una en Oaxaca (Cerro Azul – Los Chimalapas). Bd descrito en El Triunfo (no en esta especie). Solo se han encontrado 2 hembras en los últimos 5 años. Podria ser conservada en El Trinfo (amenazas controladas).

Plectrohyla ixil. Critically Endangered.
Abundante, registros recientes 2007. Presentan Bd. Anteriormente más abundante. Puede ser que la población de Guatemala sea otra especie. Muchos renacuajos con piezas bucales deformes.

Plectrohyla lacertosa. Endangered.
Abundante, registros recientes en el 2008 pero la especie tiene BD en Sierra Morena, Chiapas.

Plectrohyla mykter. Endangered.
Registrada en Carrizal de Bravo, Guerrero en 2000 pero en el 2003 no se encontro nada. La localidad esta muy alterada.

Plectrohyla pentheter. Endangered.
Registrada en el 2007 en Nueva Dehli, Guerrero, pero en Escalerilla ( se encontro Bd) y en San Gabriel Mixtepec, Oaxaca la poblacion presenta el Bd.

Plectrohyla robertsorum. Endangered.
La poblacion de Hidalgo esta amenazada por el crecimiento de la zona urbana de Zacaultipan, hay otro registro de Zoquizoquipan, Hidalgo, en el 2003, pero en este lugar estan entubando el rio.

Plectrohyla sabrina. Critically Endangered.
17 renacuajos colectados (9 con partes bucales incompletas) en 2000 en Sierra de Juárez.

ARKive species - Spikethumb frog (Plectrohyla sagorum)Plectrohyla sagorum. Endangered.
Abundante en la zona del El Trunfo, se sospecha que esta declinando y el Bd esta presente en la especie. No se sabe como es la condicion de las poblaciones en otras localidades.

Plectrohyla siopela. Critically Endangered.
Posiblemenet extinto. No hay registros desde los 60s. La localidad tipo en Cofre de Perote perdió el riachule donde se reproducía ya que el agua fue entubada.

Ptychohyla erythromma. Endangered.
Probablemente en malas condiciones, se encontro un adulto muerto por Bd y larvas sin partes bucales, ademas el habitat esta muy mal. Se sugiere que esta especie sea recategorizada.

Ptychohyla leonhardschultzei. Endangered.
En el Cerro las Flores y San Gabriel Mixtepec se ha registrado el Bd en esas localidades. Es una especie de amplia distribucion pero fragmentada.

Smilisca dentata. Endangered. An ex situ program for this species exists at Sao Paulo Zoo, Brazil.
De las 6 poblaciones conocidas solo se registra en dos (Villa Hidalgo, Jalisco y Buena Vista de Peñuelas, Aguascalientes, pero en la de Jalisco ya es muy rara. Hay un proyecto para evaluar el tamaño de las poblaciones.

Craugastor glaucus. Critically Endangered.
Colectada en el 2007. Es una especie rara.

Craugastor omiltemanus. Endangered.
Registrado en la region en el 1985, probablemente las lolcalidades ya esta muy perturbadas.

Eleutherodactylus grandis. Critically Endangered.
Hace falta esfuerzo de colecta para edvaluar la población. Se han escuchado cantos en la Reserva del Pedregal.

Eleutherodactylus vulcani. Endangered.
Comun en Los Tuxtlas.

ARKive photo - Hypopachus barberiHypopachus barberi. Vulnerable.
Posiblemente por en San Cristobal, el ultimo registro es del 2005 pero muy pocos individuos aunque antes eran muy abundantes. El mapa del IUCN esta mal, solo se distribuye en San Cristobal.

Rana dunni. Endangered.
Situacion similar al Achoque del lago Patzcuaro pues se extraen para aprovechamiento (alimentacion).

Rana johni. Endangered.
Ya no existe en la localidad tipo pero se ha encontrado en localidades al Nte de Puebla (mas o menos abundante). En los limites de Hidalgo y San Luis Potosi tambien hay poblaciones. Esta especie se encuentra en rios muy rocosos y actualmente estan en competencia con Rana catesbiana. Ademas en Hidalgo se vierten desechos de destilacion de agua ardiente por lo que se han encontrado renacuajos muertos.

Rana megapoda. Vulnerable.
Abudante en Guanajuato, Jalisco y Michoacan. Ha soportado bien el cambio del uso del suelo.

Rana omiltemana, Guerreran Leopard Frog. Critically Endangered.
No se ha reportado desde el 85. En búsqueda hace 2 años no se encontró.

Rana tarahumarae, Tarahumara Frog. Vulnerable.
Es de las mejores monitoreadas, pero tiene el Bd.

Rana tlaloci, Tlaloc’s Leopard Frog. Critically Endangered.
Posiblemente extinta. Descrita de 3 ejemplares conservados.

Ambystoma amblycephalum. Critically Endangered.
Posiblemente extinto. Se necesita verificar la identidad taxonómica.

Ambystoma bombypellum, Axolotl. Critically Endangered.
Se han monitoreado en los últimos 3 años con 2 poblaciones y falta monitorear una tercera. Se han hecho intentos de mantenimiento en cautiverio sin éxito.

Ambystoma dumerilii, Ajolote del Lago de Patzcuaro / Achoque. Critically Endangered.
Monjitas de Paztcuaro. Se han mantenido en cautiverio.

Ambystoma leorae, Leora’s Stream Salamander. Critically Endangered.
Probablemente extinta en vida libre. Un ejemplar colectado muerto hace 3 años. No se han registrado más a pesar de búsqueda intensiva. Había en el politécnico.

ARKive photo - Lake Lerma salamander swimmingAmbystoma lermaense, Lake Lerma Salamander. Critically Endangered.
Registradas 5 localidades actuales. Poblaciuones pequeñas. Problema de uso de agua (entubando agua), contaminación por basura y químicos. Colonia de 3 años en el laboratorio, se han reproducido. La comunidad de Almoloya del río tiene interés para su conservación por su vistosidad. Etnias relacionan la especie con el ritual para que llueva.

Bolitoglossa engelhardti. Endangered.
Se ha reportado Bd en la zona.

Bolitoglossa flavimembris. Endangered.
Se ha reportado Bd en la zona.

Bolitoglossa franklini. Endangered.
Se ha reportado Bd en la zona.

Bolitoglossa riletti. Endangered.

Bolitoglossa stuarti. Data Deficient.
Posiblemente extinta. No se ha colectado desde su descripción, en 1963.

ARKive species - Dwarf splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton dimidiatus)Chiropterotriton dimidiatus. Endangered.
Cuesta trabajo encontrarlas en vida libre. Incendios recientes han disminuido la población. El último registro es de 1997 (G.Parra).

Chiropterotriton lavae. Critically Endangered.
Colectados varios ejemplares en el 97, pero después el bosque desapareció.

Chiropterotriton mosaueri. Critically Endangered.
Probablemente extinta en vida libre. No más de 6 especies de salamandras cavernícolas en México.

Chiropterotriton multidentatus. Endangered.
Cuesta trabajo encontrarlas en vida libre. Incendios recientes han disminuido la población. El último registro es de 1997 (G.Parra).

Cryptotriton alvarezdeltoroi. Endangered.
Ultimo registro en 1993, solo se conocen dos individuos.

Dendrotriton xolocalcae. Vulnerable.
Es rara.

Ixalotriton niger. Critically Endangered.
Detectado Bd en la zona y en Bolitoglossa rufescens.

Ixalotriton parva. Critically Endangered.
Detectado Bd en la zona y en Plectrohyla lacertosa.

Lineatriton lineolus. Endangered.
Todavía es posible encontrar individuos pero en poca cantidad.

Nyctanolis pernix. Endangered.
Desde la primera colecta en México no se ha vuelto a registrarse colectó en los 90´ en Guatemala.

ARKive photo - Morelos salamanderPseudoeurycea altamontana. Endangered.
No se han invertido esfuerzos recientes para su colecta.

Pseudoeurycea aquatica. Critically Endangered.
Posiblemente extinta. Totontepec, Oaxaca localidad típo y única. Visita a la localidad hace dos años y está todo modificado.

Pseudoeurycea brunnata. Critically Endangered.
Reporte de Bd en la zona de Tacaná. No se ha registrado en muchos años.

Pseudoeurycea firscheini. Endangered.
Desaparecida de la localidad tipo, pero fue registrada en una nueva localidad en 2002 (G.Parra).

Pseudoeurycea gigantea. Endangered.
Se han colectado recientemente en  bajos números.

Pseudoeurycea goebeli. Critically Endangered.
Reporte de Bd en la zona de Tacaná. No se ha registrado en muchos años.

ARKive species - Longtail false brook salamander (Pseudoeurycea longicauda)Pseudoeurycea longicauda. Endangered.
Se sugiere recategorizar a CR. Hay presencia de invdividuos pero en bajos números, Hábitat con tala acelerada y distribución restringida.

Pseudoeurycea melanomolga. Endangered.

Pseudoeurycea mystax. Endangered.

Pseudoeurycea nigromaculata. Critically Endangered.
Un individuo colectado en los últimos dos años de la localidad tipo (Cerro Chicahuaxtla, Veracruz – Jean Rafaelli). Se han hecho búsquedas intensivas y no se han encontrado.

Thorius grandis. Endangered.

Thorius lunaris. Endangered.

Thorius magnipes. Critically Endangered.
Se han encontrado 7 individuos ( en una sola ocasión) en los últimos 7 años. No en la localidad tipo.

Thorius minutissimus. Critically Endangered.
Dos individuos encontrados en los últimos 10 años en 3 esfuerzos de captura. Bosque prácticamente inexistente.

Thorius minydemus. Critically Endangered.
Un individuo encontrado en los úlrimos 10 años.

Thorius munificus. Endangered.

Thorius spilogaster. Endangered.


Morocco

1 species for which the availability of founders and the status of a phylogenetic study is unknown


Panama

51 species for which the availability of founders and the status of a phylogenetic studies is unknown

ARKive species - Toad Mountain harlequin frog (Atelopus certus)Atelopus certus. Endangered.

Atelopus chiriquiensis. Critically Endangered.

Atelopus glyphus. Critically Endangered.

Atelopus limosus. Endangered.

Atelopus varius, Harlequin Frog. Critically Endangered.
Possibly unique toxin. Cultural icon covers A. varius in addition to A. zeteki.

ARKive photo - Golden arrow poison frog on leaf, side viewAtelopus zeteki, Panamanian Golden Frog. Critically Endangered.
Unique toxin. Cultural icon. Toxin research.

Bufo aucoinae. Least Concern.

Bufo fastidiosus. Critically Endangered.

Bufo peripatetes. Critically Endangered.

Centrolene ilex. Least Concern.

Cochranella albomaculata. Least Concern.

Cochranella euknemos. Least Concern.

Hyalinobatrachium vireovittatum. Data Deficient.

Colostethus chocoensis. Data Deficient.

Colostethus latinasus. Data Deficient.

Colostethus nubicola. Least Concern.

Colostethus panamensis. Least Concern.
Unique toxin.

Dendrobates arboreus, Polkadot Poison Frog. Endangered.
Possibly collected for pet trade.

Dendrobates fulguritus, Yellow-bellied Poison Frog. Least Concern.

Dendrobates granuliferus, Granular Poison Frog. Vulnerable.
Collected for pet trade.

Dendrobates speciosus, Splendid Poison Frog. Endangered.
Collected for pet trade.

Epipedobates maculatus, Confusing Poison Frog. Data Deficient.

Anotheca spinosa. Near Threatened.

ARKive species - Costa Rica brook frog (Duellmanohyla uranochroa)Duellmanohyla uranochroa. Critically Endangered.

Ecnomiohyla “el valle”. Data Deficient.

Ecnomiohyla fimbrimembra. Endangered.

Ecnomiohyla miliaria. Vulnerable.

Hylomantis lemur. Endangered.

Hyloscirtus colymba. Critically Endangered.

Hyloscirtus palmeri. Least Concern.

ARKive species - Narrow-lined tree frog (Isthmohyla angustilineata)Isthmohyla angustilineata. Critically Endangered.

Isthmohyla calypsa. Critically Endangered.

Isthmohyla debilis. Critically Endangered.

Isthmohyla graceae. Critically Endangered.

Craugastor azueroensis. Endangered.

Craugastor bufoniformis. Least Concern.

Craugastor catalinae. Critically Endangered.

Craugastor obesus. Endangered.

ARKive photo - Bob's robber frog, close up of headCraugastor punctariolus. Endangered.

Craugastor ranoides. Critically Endangered.

Craugastor rhyacobatrachus. Endangered.

Craugastor tabasarae. Critically Endangered.

Craugastor taurus. Critically Endangered.

Eleutherodactylus moro. Least Concern.

Eleutherodactylus museosus. Endangered.

ARKive photo - Horned marsupial frog, head detailGastrotheca cornuta. Endangered.
Largest eggs in class Amphibia.

Hemiphractus fasciatus. Near Threatened.

Nelsonophryne aterrima. Least Concern.

Rana vibicaria. Critically Endangered.

Oedipina maritima. Critically Endangered.
Only species of tropical salamander endemic to an island.

Oedipina pacificensis. Least Concern.


Peru

28 species for which the availability of founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

ARKive photo - Peru stubfoot toadAtelopus peruensis. Critically Endangered.
Posiblemnte extinta , se encontro chytridiomycosis en corte histologico en colección de museo 1994 de la zona de Cajamarca. No hay reportes de sobrevivencia en cautiverio.

Atelopus pulcher. Critically Endangered.
No se comprobo la chtridiomycosis y no se publico. Solo se menciona como comunicación personal en una publicacion. Se amaenaza por deforestacion. Se ha reportado una poblacion en Santa Maria de Nieva (Amazonas), existen varios lugares donde se los encuentra. Al norte existe menos presion pero al sur existe mas poblacion la cual si es afectada por la deforestación. Se sabe de la crianza en cautiverio en Alemania. Se puede utilizar como modelo de crianza en cautiverio.

Bufo chavin. Critically Endangered.
Se reporta una busqueda en campo 2001 al 2005 y no se encontro en Huanuco.

Bufo corynetes. Vulnerable.
No se observa más en la localidad tipo por destrucción del habitat. Existen proyectos de conservacion para la especie (Jose Ochoa). Se sugiere reevaliacion del estatus de esta especie. El el remanente de habitat se han encontrado menos especimenes en los ultimos cinco años.

Bufo multiverrucosus. Data Deficient.
No ha sido encontrado en la localidad tipo ni en zonas aledañas. Se sugiere mas investigascion en campo. Lehr y Cesar Aguilar.

ARKive species - Fernando's giant glass frog (Centrolene fernandoi)Centrolene fernandoi. Endangered.
Existe mucha deforestacion, no se tiene informacion actual.

Centrolene hesperium. Vulnerable.
Endemico de la catarata Chorroblanco en monte – seco, el area se encuentra bastante perturbada (deforestacion). En el Monitoreo en 2006 -2007 solo se encontro un individuo macho.

Cochranella euhystrix. Data Deficient.
Se esta quedando sin habitat. No ha sido encontrada en el 2006 -2007 (P. Venegas). Localidad tipo fuertemente amenazada.

Cochranella pluvialis. Data Deficient.
Endemica para Aguas calientes  habitat destruido, es dificil de encontrarlo. En el 2007 no fue encontrado ningun especimen. Wilfredo sugiere el cambio de categoria  de mayor amenaza. Puede ser considerado casi extinto.

Cochranella saxiscandens. Endangered.
Poco conocida, 2005 se busco en San Martin no hubo registros. Preguntar a Rainer.

Epipedobates planipaleae, Oxapampa Poison Frog. Critically Endangered.
Monitoreo realizado por German Chavez 11 especimenes en la localidad Tipo 2007-2008.

Batrachophrynus macrostomus. Endangered.
Es discutible su categorización actual se sugiere que se ubique en peligro critico, se encuentran raramente en el lago. Se hicieron intentos fallidos de reproducion y crianza en cautiverio.

Eleutherodactylus pataikos. Vulnerable.
Repotada solo para una localidad muy restrigida, no esta registrado formalmente para ecuador. Es conocida solo por el holotip.

Eleutherodactylus rhodoplichus. Endangered.
Distribucion bastante fragmentada por la ganaderia y agricultura, no ha sido formalmente registrado en Ecuador.

Gastrotheca stictopleura. Endangered.
No se ha encontrado en su area de distribucion, en la zona de Paucartambo el ambiente esta impactado por  el cultivo de papa  que se va incrementando, se usa muchos agrotoxicos (insentivo del Ministerio de Agricultura), se ha incrementado en los ultimos años en un alto porcentaje. Poco conocida y dificil de encontrar.

Gastrotheca zeugocystis. Critically Endangered.
Fue visualizado por Daniel Rodriguez (preguntarle).

Phrynopus dagmarae. Critically Endangered.
No se ha realizado monitoreo, se deberia enfocar la investigación para la conservación.

Phrynopus heimorum. Critically Endangered.
No se ha realizado monitoreo, se deberia enfocar la investigación para la conservación.

Phrynopus horstpauli. Critically Endangered.
No se ha realizado monitoreo, se deberia enfocar la investigación para la conservación

Phrynopus juninensis. Critically Endangered.
No se ha realizado monitoreo, se deberia enfocar la investigación para la conservación.

Phrynopus kauneorum. Critically Endangered.
No se ha realizado monitoreo, se deberia enfocar la investigación para la conservación.

Phrynopus lucida. Critically Endangered.
No se ha realizado monitoreo, se deberia enfocar la investigación para la conservación

Phrynopus montium. Endangered.
Especie poco conocida.

Phrynopus parkeri. Critically Endangered.
No se ha realizado monitoreo, se deberia enfocar la investigación para la conservación.

Phrynopus pereger. Critically Endangered.
No se ha realizado monitoreo, se deberia enfocar la investigación para la conservación.

Telmatobius brevipes. Endangered.
No ha sido encontrada desde 1997 (P. Venegas). Se han realizado inventarios en zonas donde era conocida y no se han vuelto a encontrar. Simpatrico con Atelopus peruensis y Bufo cophotis. Posiblemente se encuentra extinta) .

Telmatobius ignavus. Endangered.
Posiblemente extinto. Se busco en el 2006 y no fue encontrado por P. Venegas, igualmente en la expecion del 2005 (extraccion de tejidos) no se enconmtro.

Telmatobius latirostris. Endangered.
En la localidad tipo ya no se encuentra, y en Mote seco tampoco ha sido encontrada (2006 y 2007. Se recomienda hacer una busqueda intensiva en el Parque Nacional San Andres de Cutervo.


Puerto Rico

4 species for which the wild founders are likely to be available and phylogenetic studies have been completed

ARKive photo - Close up of a lowland Caribbean toad, side viewPeltophryne lemur, Puerto Rican Crested Toad. Critically Endangered. Captive bred to F2. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Much of the population is in protected areas, but the area is being impacted by rising sea levels leading to salt water contamination of ponds. Habitat in the north needs to be restored before additional releases are undertaken  (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011). Initial attempts at reintroduction were not very successful, but this has improved over time (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011). Past experience with conservation education is applicable to similar Cuban species (L. Diaz, pers. comm. March 2011). Samples are required for research into phylogeny and morphology and bioacoustics, resistance to salinity (A. Rodriguez, R. Joglar pers. comm. March 2011). Is a good analog for some Cuban Peltophryne species. F2 specimens have been produced using hormonal techniques. (A. R. Estrada, pers. comm. March 2011). Post meeting comment: Species has been bred beyond F8s and that they have also been bred naturally in addition through the use of hormones (D. Barber, pers.comm.).

ARKive photo - Male cricket robber frog on edge of leafEleutherodactylus gryllus, Coquí Grillo. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Has been declining in recent years and has been moving to higher elevations. They are now at the highest elevation. Faces a high risk of extinction (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011). Coquis are the national emblem of Puerto Rico and are therefore culturally significant. Is a good example to use for education about the effects of climate change (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011).

Eleutherodactylus portoricensis, Mountain Coqui, Coquí De La Montaña. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Coquis are the national emblem of Puerto Rico and are therefore culturally significant. The remaining population is in protected areas, although the species is rare in this area (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011). Good for education purposes as it has dramatically reducing distribution and only found in cloud forest area (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011). Is much less abundant now, and previously known habitat has been removed since last Red List Assessment. Recommended for re-assessment. (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011).

ARKive species - Richmond’s robber frog (Eleutherodactylus richmondi)Eleutherodactylus richmondi, Richmond’s Coqui, Coquí caoba. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Coquis are the national emblem of Puerto Rico and are therefore culturally significant. No longer exists in protected areas (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011). A captive breeding programs exists in UPR and Central Florida Zoo. Is a very attractive frog and therefore a good species for conservation education. Fertile eggs have been produced but young have not been raised to adults.

3 species for which the availability of wild founders is unknown and phylogenetic studies have been completed

Eleutherodactylus eneidae, Coquí de Eneida. Critically Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Is probably extinct, although known distribution is in protected habitat.. Has not been seen since 1990 (A. R. Estrada, R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011). Coquis are the national emblem of Puerto Rico and are therefore culturally significant. Is an important species to raise awareness about species extinctions and the amphibian extinction crisis (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011).

Eleutherodactylus jasperi, Golden Coqui Frog, Coquí Dorado. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Coquis are the national emblem of Puerto Rico and are therefore culturally significant. Species has not been seen since 1981 and is possibly extinct. Only a small amount of the population was in a protected area (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011). One of the few live-bearing frog species.

Eleutherodactylus karlschmidti, Webbed-footed Coqui, Coquí Palmeado. Critically Endangered. Maintained in captivity but no successful breeding. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Coquis are the national emblem of Puerto Rico and are therefore culturally significant. Almost certainly extinct. Is an important species to raise awareness about species extinctions and the amphibian extinction crisis (R. Joglar, pers. comm. March 2011).


Singapore

1 species for which wild founders are not likely to be available and a phylogenetic study has not completed

Megophrys nasuta, Long-nosed Horned Frog. Least Concern. Captive bred to F1. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Listed as Least Concern in the global Red List, but is listed as Endangered in latest National Red List. Species occurs in protected habitat (Bukit Timah Nature Reserve,  Nee Soon Swamp Forest), but perhaps none of the reserves in Singapore are large enough to mitigate against climate change.  Habitat for reintroduction is limited as there maybe good places but the streams may be too short, too shallow (Tzi Ming Leong, pers. comm.). D. Bickford agrees that the stream habitat will be the limiting factor, so habitat is potentially available. Not effectively protected at this stage, we don’t know if it would be possible to rehabilitate streams (D. Bickford, pers. comm. Oct. 2011). Ming agrees that we don’t know enough and would need to provide several substantial pumps to rehabilitate the streams. Further discussion with David Bickford and Daniel Ng determined that the threats are irreversible or potentially irreversible and if we do not do anything then it will become extinct. Minimum population needed to ensure survival is unknown – they have been declining in Singapore. Possibly only 50 individuals left in Singapore, David feels that there are less than 100 – so it is unknown if sufficient individuals exist for the population to recover.  Noted that tadpoles have an unusual way of feeding. Species has high dependency on stream health and longevity – it is dependent on good streams therefore a good indicator of climate change and health of environment. It would be important to know what parts of the streams it would use. Has been bred in captivity privately and in Hong Kong (Brad Wilson, pers. comm. Oct. 2011). National Parks Board could be convinced to allow collection if the conditions of the captive institution met their approval. Noted that females are quite scarce. David doesn’t feel National Parks Board would ever give permission to take 40 individuals from the wild. A person from National Parks Board said that only if the wild population was big enough to sustain taking 40 from the wild would they agree. Ming suggests that there might be a need for in situ research to find out where the females are as they are not often encountered in the wild.


Southern Africa

9 species for which the availability of founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

ARKive species - Amatola toad (Vandijkophrynus amatolicus)Bufo amatolicus, Amatola Toad. Endangered – South Africa.
No more Bufo in Africa. Vandijkophrynus is new genus. Threats are seemingly more serious as no populations are in protected areas. Seriousness for long-term ex situ conservation has been identified.

Bufo pantherinus, Western Leopard Toad. Endangered – South Africa.
Amietophrynus is the new genus. Distribution is mainly in a town. Has current attention from SANBI to develop a management plan of habitat. Comment on threats seem more serious and that it probably needs more attention than Heleophryne. Indication that education awareness is also a role that can be fulfilled in its conservation efforts. Action groups developing around its habitat and there is a development of its awareness around local residents.

ARKive species - Hewitt’s ghost frog (Heleophryne hewitti)Heleophryne hewitti, Hewitt’s Ghost Frog. Critically Endangered – South Africa.
From currently known information and experience it is noted that it is in a pristine environment. However the corridor implemented by the Dept of forestry is not adequate in size. Chytrid fungus is probably in the tadpoles in the wild from studies done since 2000 in extensive surveys. Chytrid is a major threat to the adults. Suggested more efforts be focused on more research into their environmental threats and management of wild populations. Suggested to use another local more common species such as H.orientalis or H.purcelli as an analog species/model for future conservation efforts. A note must be made that there is a seriousness about the conservation of this species. It has been noted that the tadpoles of this species should be used in captivity to start with the process of rearing to morphological stage and beyond.

ARKive photo - Table Mountain ghost frogHeleophryne rosei, Table Mountain Ghost Frog. Critically Endangered – South Africa.
Chytrid has been identified in Heleophryne in general as a major threat. Suggestion has been made for PHVA management and establishment. Wild populations are too small to create any ex situ populations and it would be more viable to leave them in the wild and allow self preservation to an extent. Following on from using H.orientalis and H.burchelli as models for analog and to develop the skills for husbandry. Collecting tadpoles was suggested to use for ex situ conservation if it has been decided on. Time is also a factor to consider in the reasoning that the environmental factors effecting there decline are slow enough to allow for model development. A point was made about genetic availability and long term solutions are to possibly bring in approximately 20 adults for a founder population size. More research was suggested on genetic banking. Cultural significance as a species to South Africans and more so Western Cape inhabitants. As only six species in Genus they have specialized morphological changes during reproduction cycles such as webbings. Phylogenetic significance between H.rosei and H.hewetti put H.rosei above H.hewetti with regards to efforts being focused on both in situ and ex situ research.

ARKive species - Pickersgill's reed frog (Hyperolius pickersgilli)Hyperolius pickersgilli, Pickersgill’s Reed Frog. Endangered – South Africa.
Has potential for a full scale ex situ breeding program. Possible research value for uShaka to work through and not with-standing their educational value. Could be a possible display animal.

Cacosternum capense, Cape Caco. Vulnerable – South Africa.
A hardy species to an extent in that it can survive in certain cases where geological disturbance has taken place. Not found around dams but more pools of long standing water. Noted as declining faster than commonly perceived. Possibly getting this species in captivity before the population spirals into extinction rather than having an analog species model. Not found in protected areas and there livelihood depends on the goodwill of the farmers in the region speaking to local authorities.

Natalobatrachus bonebergi. Endangered – South Africa.
Distribution tied to riparian forests. Concerns over degradation threatens habitat. Chytrid has been found in the wetlands in Vernin Crookes but not in this species as yet. Recommendations on in situ research to identify if it needs rescue and supplementation but in short term it may be used as an educational tool until the details from in situ research is available. Not seen as an easy species for ex situ programs. Tadpoles have been raised and morphed in captivity but to follow through on the reproduction is seemingly more of a challenge.

ARKive photo - Cape platanna showing elongated patchesXenopus gilli, Cape Platanna. Endangered – South Africa.
Thrives in acidic environments below pH4. Hybridization with X.leavis when pH is altered and then X.leavis occupies the same habitat. The recommendation on threat mitigation would be to consult Atherton on this. This species is seen as an easy species to keep in captivity. The most acid tolerant frog known.

Ptychadena broadleyi, Broadley’s Ridged Frog. Endangered – Malawi.
The habitat seems beyond repair and in some instances stated as destroyed and not inhabitable by this species. Known as an enigmatic species and has not been seen for a number of years.


Spain

1 species for which the availability of founders and the status of a phylogenetic study is unknown

Rana grafi. Vulnerable.


Sri Lanka

10 species for which wild founders are likely to be available and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

ARKive photo - Adenomus dasi Adenomus dasi, Das Dwarf Toad. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.
Tea plantations are below the distribution of the species and don’t affect the area of the the toad. Research ex situ: reproductive biology unknown. Good species for messaging (100 years ago was common and show how with the plantations affected the populations). 

Adenomus kelaartii, Kelaart’s Dwarf Toad. Endangered. Has been bred in captivity. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.
German researchers published the reproduction biology (comments of being illegally collected). Restricted to pristine clean water streams. Found dead specimens with malformation. Within a protected area there are evidences of decline (Knuckles, Anslem de Silva’s study site (location site for the species). Some of the protected areas suggest populations are stable. Attractive for display and good flagship species. Good analogue for A. dasi husbandry and education message. Species known from more localities now. Considered stable in some protected areas (Mohomad Bahir – goodwillserve@gmail.com) but declining in others (Anslem de Silva – kalds@slt.lk).

ARKive species - Kotagama’s dwarf toad (Bufo kotagamai)Bufo kotagamai, Kotagama’s Toad. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.
The species still declining. Reproductive biology is unknown.

Duttaphrynus noellerti, Noellert’s Toad. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.

Fejervarya greenii, Sri Lanka Montane Frog. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.
Threats are increasing. Trout are also introduced in protected areas and it’s protected! Lots of people working in the area so more capacity to change/reverse the threats. There is an example of reversing the threats in similar conditions and recovering a frog species locally. Agrochemicals are increasing and this threat wasn’t present for the example above. Investigate significance of introduced trout predation.

Nannophrys naeyakai, Tribal Rock Frog. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.
Galloya National Park is an additional protected area. Unknown the status/declining because nobody works on it. Threats seems to be increasing. Species isn’t effectively protected. Threats can’t be changed. The biology is unknown but probably the same as the other Nannophrys, as are the ecological requirements. Local education awareness – only species occurring in the dry zone and the importance of not making fires. 

Microhyla zeylanica, Sri Lanka Narrow-mouthed Frog. Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.
Fragmentation of populations and surrounded by pesticide “hotspots” and area of ocupancy has been reduced. Propose may be Critically Endangered. Mohomad Bahir and Anslem de Silva will provide the information to support the proposal of Critically Endangered (goodwillserve@gmail.com; kalds@slt.lk). Record of arrival of new species of bird predators (egret) in the habitat (new threat). Area occupancy continuing to decline and increased fragmentation – Mohomad Bahir and Anslem de Silva (goodwillserve@gmail.com; kalds@slt.lk).

ARKive photo - Philautus caeruleusPhilautus caeruleus, Blue-thighed Shrub Frog. Endangered – Sri Lanka Has been bred in captivity. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.

Philautus femoralis, Leaf-nesting Shrub Frog. Endangered. Has been bred in captivity. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.
Morningside and Corbett’s Gap records are wrong in the GAA. Species from these locations are different/new species. Three new locations from Anslem de Silva (kalds@slt.lk) since the past review (in total 5 locations for the final/real species). Mendis Wickramasinghe – all current confirmed locations within one cluster. May qualify for CR. Very sensitive to  environmental parameters which makes them very susceptible – maybe irreversible threat. Habitat disappearing with no time for mitigation. Unique breeding strategy of direct development species sticking eggs under leaves with green yolk (Mohomad Bahir publcn.) Educational value: Attractive species, colorful and reproductive biology uniqueness. Husbandry analogue for P.mooreorum and P. popiae.

ARKive species - Oriental shrub frog (Philautus frankenbergi)Philautus frankenbergi, Frankenburg’s Shrub Frog. Endangered. Has been bred in captivity. Wild founders are likely to be available. Unknown if phylogenetic study has been completed.
Third location known – Adam’s Peak. Mountain cloud forest species (forest specialist). At Namunukula the frog is on private land (tea plantation) and has a high chance of being lost unless the site is protected. Threats continue even within the two protected areas.


Thailand

6 species for which the availability of wild founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

Calluella guttulata, Striped Spadefoot Frog. Least Concern.
Suggested change from LC to NT. The species is collected extensively for food. Many would be caught in the breeding season. Found in the local market, live and cooked.

Glyphoglossus molossus, Truncate-snouted Burrowing Frog. Near Threatened.

Kaloula mediolineata, Median-striped Bullfrog. Near Threatened.

Microhyla ornata, Ornamented Pygmy Frog. Least Concern.

Microhyla pulchra, Beautiful Pygmy Frog. Least Concern.

Paa bourreti. Data Deficient.


Turkey

6 species for which the availability of wild founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

Rana cf. holzi, Taurus frog. Critically Endangered.

ARKive species - Luschan’s salamander (Lyciasalamandra antalyana)Lyciasalamandra antalyana. Endangered.

Lyciasalamandra atifi. Endangered.

Lyciasalamandra fazilae. Endangered.

Lyciasalamandra flavimembris. Endangered.

Lyciasalamandra luschani.Endangered.


USA

4 species for which founders are likely to be available and phylogenetic studies have been completed

ARKive photo - Houston toad calling, close upAnaxyrus houstonensis, Houston Toad. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available and a phylogenetic study has been completed.
Crump/Gluesenkamp – education will be important to get private landowners to help, TPWD student program in place & youth Toad Trackers (Houston Zoo). Habitat assessment for microhabitat needs (for toads) per Paul Crump.

Lithobates sevosus, Dusky Gopher Frog. Critically Endangered. Wild founders are likely to be available and a phylogenetic study has been completed.
Hanna – TNC has bought up wetland sites for potential reintroduction; Lannoo – has been challenged for economic reasons for ESA (development); Memphis Zoo translocated some recently; Assisted Reproduction Technology used to produced frogs. Research required into disease and nutrition of captive population.

Ambystoma bishopi, Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander. Vulnerable. Wild founders are likely to be available and a phylogenetic study has been completed.
May qualify as endangered; Dodd – ongoing studies by Fla F&GC; Dodd – protection is Eglin AFB & Apalachicola WA; Barber – Jacksonville Zoo has plans to reintroduce in future; Dodd/Barrett – threats are climate change (droughts) and no one else is filling breeding ponds (Barrett – mitigation – habitat loss/ increased connectivity/landscape level occupancy/fill ponds). Barrett – so few populations left, expect difficult to resolve issue. Dodd – analog for A. cingulatum (which is even more critical); Dodd – education (attractiveness, habitat, regional endemic). Natural history lacking

ARKive photo - California tiger salamander, close-upAmbystoma californiense, California Tiger Salamander. Vulnerable. Wild founders are likely to be available and a phylogenetic study has been completed.
Lannoo – new threat is genetic pollution from introduced tiger salamanders; Gluesenkamp- extirpation includes fish in stock pools; Gluesenkamp mentions that hybridized specimens could be culled from ponds. Gluesenkamp – bred by Brad Schaffer (now at UCLA); Gluesenkamp- “Poster child” for loss of Valley ecosystems.

1 species for which the availability of wild founders is unknown and for which a phylogenetic study has been completed
ARKive photo - Flatwoods salamander on leaf litterAmbystoma cingulatum, Frosted Flatwoods Salamander. Critically Endangered. Unknown if wild founders are likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has been done.
Dodd – possibly extinct in SC/GA, but FL populations known extant in last two years; Barrett – not seen in GA in more than a decade; A bishopi is an analog for this species.; All – regional species awareness and threat awareness would be beneficial similar to small range species, Range state approval (Barrett – no in GA, Dodd – FL is ?, and Riverbanks were wild caught, so potentially possible). Natural history lacking.
1 species for which wild founders are not likely to be available and for which a phylogenetic study has not been completed
Plethodon ainsworthi, Bay Springs Salamander. Extinct. Wild founders are not likely to be available – additional in situ research is required. A phylogenetic study has not yet been done.
Extinct species – but we evaluated it with the understanding that if it reappears; education warranted, if rediscovery; Dodd – distinctive morphologically – elongated and skinny. Nothing known as only from limited preserved specimens. Need to study natural history and causes of declines warranted, if rediscovered.


Venezuela

16 species for which the availability of wild founders and the status of phylogenetic studies are unknown

ARKive species - Collared poison frog (Mannophryne collaris)Mannophryne collaris, Collared Poison Frog. Endangered.
Amenazada en los límites de la ciudad de Mérida y presente en el Estado. Deforestación y construcción de viviendas (Rosemary Sanchez). Se puede considerar como la rana emblemática de la región. Lagunillas, Canagua otras poblaciones. Dinora, prospecciones sin éxito. La subpoblación de la terraza de Mérida con una gran disminución y quizá se requiere establecimiento de colonias cautivas para asegurar la subpoblación Necesidad de Revisión Taxonómica (E La Marca). Tesis Pregrado (Mariella Marquez- F. Navas)– Ensayos de susceptibilidad a Q. ). Condominios que afectan a subpoblaciones que han desaparecidos.  

Mannophryne cordilleriana. Vulnerable.
Restringida a un radio de 2 km y muy abundante en un lugar de 2 sq m. Presa Jose Antonio Paez en Santo Domingo, Est. Merida. Resto del hábitat muy degradado.   Alta probabilidad de extinciones locales. Poblaciones al borde de carreteras.   

Nephelobates alboguttatus. Endangered.
Posiblemente Extinto. Muy abundante en Monte Zerpa (Cerca de la c. de Mérida) (1980s). En el 2003 no se vuelve a encontrar (F. Nava) Un año de trabajo y prospecciones. Extinta de la terraza de Mérida. Desaparece por el urbanismo y luego no se encuentra en los bosques. Afectada por alteraciones en las precipitaciones. Pobalciones en PN Sierra Nevada en la Mucuy.  Se sugiere subirla a Catergoría CR.  

Nephelobates duranti. Endangered.
Páramo de la Culata. Cultivos como amenaza. Peligro por agroquímicos. Se sugiere subirla a Categoría CR. Finca que contaminaba los cauces de agua (agroquímicos).  

Nephelobates haydeeae. Endangered.
Especie de la familia con más problema. Localidad tipo (Páramo del Zumbador) intervenida para cultivos y agroquímicos. Subpoblación eocntrada (2006) en un área muy intervenida. Se sugiere subirla a Categoría CR. PN lo páramos-Batallón y la Negra ya está intervenido.

ARKive species - Mayorga rocket frog (Nephelobates mayorgai)Nephelobates mayorgai. Endangered.
Era muy común 80s. Población vía Azulita- El Maporal de la Osa por verificar (2006) (F. Nava). Páramo del Tambor (PN) .

Nephelobates molinarii. Endangered.
Se encuentra en la localidad Tipo (2007) Las Playitas. Desapareció en la zona de Bailadores. PN el Batallón y La Negra como posible distribución. Ya no se encuentra en el sitio. Las poblaciones quedan fuera del PN.  Zona de Papa y Ajo y Fresa con agroquímicos. Se recomienda subirla a Categoría CR.

Nephelobates orostoma. Endangered.

Atelopus chrysocorallus. Critically Endangered.
Reporte para agosto 2007 no confirmado – Niquitao (JE. García) – aguas negras Registro fotográfico. ONG (Andes Tropicales)– reporta que lo lleva a Mérida. Cultivo de flores y papas.

Atelopus pinangoi, Green And Red Venter Harlequin Toad. Critically Endangered.
Dos poblaciones. 7 ejemplares en un sitio totalmente intervenido aledaños a una quebrada (JE García) (1992). Ahora es más fácil el acceso a la zona. No se encuentra en áreas protegidas. Quebradas con Truchas. Destrucción de habitat. Agroquímicos con vertimiento a las quebradas.

ARKive species - Cloud forest stubfoot toad (Atelopus sorianoi)Atelopus sorianoi, Scarlet Harlequin Toad, Sapito Morocota. Critically Endangered.
Igual al resto de Atelopus. Datos de una segunda población Quebrada de las Ranas (2006-2007)  (E La Marca). Monitoreo de más de un año. Anteriormente sólo conocido de la localidad tipo. Sitio con crecidas excepcionales – Cambio climático. Localidad Tipo incluida dentro de un PNN Batallón y la Negra (una población) y otra no en un bosque fragmentado, anteriormente conectadas las zonas de distribución. Ahora Fragmentación como amenaza. Población Tipo (extinta). Segunda población en evaluación, a la fecha sin registro de ejemplares. Sólo infomación inderecta de los habitantes de la localidad.   

Hyalinobatrachium pallidum. Endangered.
Táchira. En los Andes en un cañor de quebrada asociada a la vegetación de Bosque Seco Montano qu ella no existe. La especie se encuentra actualmente. Preguntar a Celsa Señaris.

Colostethus dunni. Critically Endangered.
No se tiene información. Poco conocida. 1983- 1985 no se encunentra (S Boher). Requiere estudio taxonómico (E. La Marca). Prob. Aromobates.  Destrucción del hábitat.

Colostethus mandelorum. Endangered.
1999-2000 (Tesis de Grado Dinora Sanchez)- 2004 Bosque quemado avistamiento de algunos renacuajos. Pérdida de hábitat extensiva: agricultura, ganadería, antenas de telecomunicaciones, carreteras, quebradas para uso humano- colectores. Incendios forestales en verano principalmente. Café sin sombra. Cerro Guamal (2006) Est. Anzoategui (Fernando Rojas). Vialidad mala y proyectos posibles a futuro por dineros disponibles que intensificará las amenazas. No hay áreas protegidas.

Colostethus saltuensis. Endangered.
Zonas boscosas bajas que están totalmente intervenidas. Nueva población descubierta recientemente (2002) (E. La Marca). No existen áreas protegidas.

ARKive species - Merida tree frog (Dendropsophus meridensis)Dendropsophus meridensis. Endangered.
Endémica del Est de Mérida. Destrucción de hábitat gradual en la zona de distribución. Rana Toro en la zona de distribución. Lagunas artificiales que comparten con D meridensis y rana toro con densidades inversas.  Especie que la intervención podría haberla beneficiado. Especie con Bd. Prevalencia 30%. Especie invasora de Páramo. Especie de Bosque de Niebla. Estrategia reproductiva baja (300). Historia Natural de la Ranita Merideña (F. Nava 2007).


LinkedInEmailShare/Bookmark
Print Friendly
 
 

Send a message to webmaster@amphibianark.org with questions or comments about the web site.
Copyright © 2014 amphibianark.org