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Documentos de Manejo

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  • Agua y Calidad de Agua

    A Water Quality Annotated Bibliography for Amphibians

    Author: Compiled by R. Andrew Odum

    Amphibian water quality: approaches to an essential environmental parameter
    Appropriate water quality is essential for maintaining and breeding amphibians in captivity. Aquatic systems that maintain water quality have been employed for many years in the aquaculture and aquarium industries. These techniques are now more commonly being utilized for amphibians. Using information from the work of the authors and published literature on amphibians and fish, benchmarks are provided for common water-quality parameters for amphibians.

    Author: R. A. Odum & K. C. Zippel
    Publication: Int. Zoo Yb. (2008) 42: 40–52

    Interactions of pH, Carbon Dioxide, Alkalinity and Hardness in Fish Ponds
    Water quality in fish ponds is affected by the interactions of several chemical components. Carbon dioxide, pH, alkalinity and hardness are interrelated and can have profound effects on pond productivity, the level of stress and fish health, oxygen availability and the toxicity of ammonia as well as that of certain metals. Most features of water quality are not constant.

    Author: William A. Wurts and Robert M. Durborow
    Publication: SRAC Publication No. 464, December 1992

    Managing water quality for amphibians in captivity

    Author: Kay Bradfield, Durrell Wildlife Conservation
    Publication: March 2010

    The Effects of Nitrite on Behavior and Metamorphosis in Cascades Frogs (Rana
    Amphibian metamorphosis is a period of drastic morphologic reorganization, during which larvae experience a decrease in locomotor ability and are more vulnerable to predation. Our results indicate that exposure to sublethal concentrations of nitrite in the water induces behavioral and morphologic changes in the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae).

    Author: Adolfo Marco and Andrew R. Blaustein
    Publication: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol.
    18, No. 5, pp. 946–949, 1999

    Water Quality
    With its dual life cycle and anamniotic egg, the amphibian is more closely bound to a continuous supply of water than most other terrestrial vertebrate groups . This supply of water must meet certain minimal requirements to maintain the health and normal behavior of the organism. The purpose of this monograph is to provide a basic understanding of water quality for amphibian keeper. This paper is not a complete representation of the exact state-of-the-art of aquaculture; instead, the authors hope to convey the principles that govern water quality management.

    Author: R Andrew Odum and Kevin Zippel
    Publication: January 2011

    Water Quality and Filtration (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: Kevin Zippel, Amphibian Ark 

    Water Quality and Filtration (presentation hand-outs)

    Author: Kevin Zippel, Amphibian Ark

  • Alimentación y Nutrición

    A Zoo-Wide Evaluation Into the Current Feeder Insect Supplementation Program at the Brookfield Zoo (English)
    Commercially raised insects are an important food source for captive animals. For those animals that are purely insectivorous, the nutrient concentrations of the food source are vitally important for the health and welfare of the animal, particularly the Ca to P ratio. In the summer of 2002, a zoo-wide evaluation of the current methods of insect supplementation was conducted at the Brookfield Zoo.

    Author: Roy D. McClements BS,  Barbara A. Lintzenich MS,  and Jennifer Boardman
    Publication: AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, 2003

    Amphibian calcium metabolism (English)
    Calcium is present in amphibian blood at a concentration similar to that in other vertebrates, about 1–2mmol. The fraction of free calcium in amphibians is lower than that in other tetrapod vertebrates because about 50% of the plasma Ca is bound to plasma proteins and perhaps other molecules. There are a number of endocrine and other humoral factors that appear to be involved in amphibian calcium metabolism. These include parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, vitamin D and prolactin.

    Author: Daniel F. Stiffler, California State Polytechnic University
    Publication: J. exp. Biol. 184 , 47–61 (1993)

    Amphibian diet and nutrition (English)
    Amphibians are a very diverse group of vertebrates; however, in general their feeding is opportunistic with food up to gape width being ingested. Amphibians such as frogs and toads only target moving prey and prefer elongated prey such as crickets or insect larvae that move across their field of vision. However, many aquatic amphibians will target food by scent and will consume inert food.

    Author: Robert K. Browne, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Belgium
    Publication: 2009

    Amphibian Nutrition (English)
    Course material on amphibian nutrition from the AZA Amphibian Biology, Conservation and Management course.

    Author: Allan Pessier, Zoological Society of San Diego
    Publication: AZA Amphibian Biology, Conservation and Management Course

    Breeding house flies (English)
    House flies can be surprisingly easy and smell-free to culture for a food source.

    Cricket species vary in gut loading capacity: Implications for delivery of carotenoids to amphibians (English)
    There are a very limited number of commercially available invertebrates used as prey items for captive insectivores. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that most feeder invertebrates are of poor nutritional quality. Captive insectivores may therefore be prone to diseases related to nutritional inadequacies. Prey species may be fed on specific nutrients that are required in the insectivore diet. This is termed ‘Gut-loading’, and is often used to improve the quality of feeder invertebrates.

    Author: V. Ogilvy, A.L. Fidgett, D. Sherriff and R.F. Preziosi
    Publication: IZW poster, 2009

    Directions for making fly food (English)

    Author: R. Mancilla, S. Yee, & M. Andres
    Publication: 2003

    EAZA Management Guideline Manual for Invertebrate Live Food Species (English)
    This manual has been designed to assist those concerned with the good management of invertebrate species destined as a captive live food resource, especially, but not exclusively, in zoos and aquaria. These guidelines cover the breeding and rearing methods for twenty three invertebrate species with supplementary information on invertebrate health and nutritional elements.

    Author: (Eds) Warren Spencer and Jenny Spencer, Bristol Zoo Gardens
    Publication: EAZA 2006

    EVACC Nutrition Protocol (English)

    Author: Eric Baitchman
    Publication: EVACC Veterinary Protocols Sep 2008

    Feeding Captive Insectivorous Animals: Nutritional Aspects of Insects as Food (English)
    Many captive animals will consume invertebrates, live or dead, but it is often necessary to offer live invertebrates (primarily insects) to a variety of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and small mammals. To successfully manage captive insectivorous species, data on nutritional composition of invertebrate prey are especially important. Since live insects may be the only food offered to some species, nutritional deficiencies can quickly arise if the nutrient levels in the live prey are imbalanced.

    Author: Joni B. Bernard and Mary E. Allen
    Publication: AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook (1997)

    Leaping forward in amphibian health and nutrition (English)
    The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the Disney’s Animal Kingdom Workshop on “Ex situ Amphibian Medicine and Nutrition” identified a critical need to design and implement approaches that will facilitate the assessment and evaluation of factors impacting amphibian health. In this manuscript, we describe and summarize the outcomes of this workshop with regards (a) the identified gaps in knowledge, (b) identified priorities for closing these gaps, and (c) compile a list of actions to address these priorities.

    Author: Francisco Olea-Popelka, Gina M. Ferrie, Cheryl Morris, Allan P. Pessier, Kristine Schad, M. Andrew Stamper, Ron Gagliardo, Elizabeth Koutsos, and Eduardo V. Valdes
    Publication: Zoo Biology 9999 : 1 – 6 (2014)

    Live Feed Nutritional Supplementation (English)
    Adequate nutrition of amphibians ensures:

    • rapid growth and normal development
    • successful reproduction
    • the production of fit and healthy offspring
    • health and low mortality rate
    • adequate calcium metabolism


    Author: Rachael Antwis and Robert K. Browne, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp

    Maintenance of Insect Colonies (English)

    Author: Susan Barnard, Basically Bats Wildlife Conservation Society
    Publication: Bats in Captivity Online, 1995. www.basicallybats.org

    Mountain Chicken Live Food Manual (English)
    This manual has been produced to provide information on the breeding requirements of live food insects for the Mountain Chicken.

    Author: Jimmy Dale
    Publication: Revision 2: 24 April 2009

    Nutrition and Health in Amphibian Husbandry (English)
    Nutritional needs of amphibians are highly integrated with disease and their husbandry needs, and the diversity of developmental stages, natural habitats, and feeding strategies result in many different recommendations for proper care and feeding. This review identifies several areas where there is substantial room for improvement in maintaining healthy ex situ amphibian populations specifically in the areas of obtaining and utilizing natural history data for both amphibians and their dietary items, achieving more appropriate environmental parameters, understanding stress and hormone production, and promoting better physical and population health.

    Author: Gina M. Ferrie et al.
    Publication: Zoo Biology 9999 : 1 – 17 (2014)

    Nutrition Recommendations for some Captive Amphibian Species (English)
    This document provides information on the nutrition of captive amphibians from the Orders Anura (frogs, bullfrogs and toads) and Caudata (newts and salamanders). Species in these Orders have very simple gastrointestinal tracts (GITs), but providing appropriate nutrition to captives can be extremely complex because of ontogenetic dietary shifts and environmental toxicities. Because of this complexity, this document can only address general factors in captive amphibian nutrition.

    Author: Deborah A. McWilliams
    Publication: 2008

    Nutritional Comparisons of Feeder Invertebrates (English)

    Nutritional Support of Amphibians (English)
    Poor body condition is a common presenting sign in amphibians, and nutritional support of the animal can be critical. Indications and contraindications for assisted feeding in amphibians will be discussed, focusing on adult anurans (e.g., frogs, toads) and urodelans or caudates (e.g., salamanders, newts, sirens). Support can include restoring hydration, syringe feeding a liquid diet, force-feeding prey items to larger amphibians, and encouragement of free feeding. In all cases, the underlying cause—most commonly suboptimal husbandry—should be investigated and corrected.

    Author: Catherine A. Hadfield, Leigh A. Clayton, Sandra L. Barnett, National Aquarium in Baltimore
    Publication: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Vol 15, No 4 (October), 2006

    Proximate and Mineral Composition of Selected Whole Invertebrates and Nutritional Effects of Different Diets on the Field Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus (English)
    In this study the nutritional compositions of the invertebrate species that are cultured on site at the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in Jersey were analysed and the effects of different diets on G. maculatus was compared.

    Author: Chris E. Young, Nottingham Trent University
    Publication: March 2010

    The art of live food culturing (English)
    As the title suggests, live food culturing does take some skill and time to properly master. This monograph is designed to help those who have an interest in raising their own live food cultures by providing information on a variety of food items.

    Author: John Chastain, Toledo Zoo
    Publication: AZA Amphibian Biology,Conservation and Management Course

  • Anfibios en el Salón de Clases o en la Casa

    Considerations and Recommendations for Raising Live Amphibians in Classrooms (English)
    The reality of emerging infectious diseases as a primary threat to amphibian populations prompted us to consider carefully some recommendations made by those authors, and also the general notion of reducing disease risks associated with keeping living amphibians in K–12 classrooms—although the same concerns apply to living amphibians in all ex-situ situations (see Pessier 2008; Zippel et al. 2006).

    Author: Joseph R. Mendelson III et al.
    Publication: Herpetological Review , 2009, 40(2), 142–144

    Establishing Frog Habitats on your Property (English)
    To re-establish or extend breeding grounds for local frog species on your property, you will need to provide dams that in part contain shallow zones and adequate vegetation cover, with protection from polluted runoff, from predatory fish and if possible from direct access by stock. You will also need to protect creeks from agricultural pollutants, where necessary in conjunction with your neighbours. There are also benefits to frogs and other wildlife if you can link up dams to existing wildlife corridors via vegetation strips, or if you can create corridors along creek lines and ponds.

    Author: Merinda Voigt, Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW
    Publication: December 1992. Revised April 2006

    Keeping frogs in your garden (English)
    This leaflet shows you how to establish or modify a garden pond for many of those local frog species that spawn in still or slowly moving water. The pond must be free of predatory fish and of polluting chemicals. It must also have gently sloping sides for the frogs to emerge and vegetation shelter around the pond.

    Author: Merinda Voigt, Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW
    Publication: December 1992. Latest revision April 2015

    Pond building guide (English)
    Amphibians live and breed in a wide variety of habitats, so there is not a single pond or wetland design that will satisfy the needs of all amphibian species or amphibians in all localities. A major objective of Operation Frog Pond is to encourage research and experimentation to develop designs and management practices to accommodate a diverse range of amphibian species with different habitat requirements. Guidelines for creating amphibian friendly habitats will be published as new information becomes available. We offer the following guidelines for creating your own amphibian haven.

    Author: Tree Walkers International

  • Crianza

    Increased Larval Density Induces Accelerated Metamorphosis Independently of
    Growth Rate in the Frog Rana sphenocephala
    Tadpoles at high density metamorphosed earlier than tadpoles at low density despite growing at similar rates. Food reductions did not accelerate metamorphosis. These results support the hypothesis that density can be a sufficient cue to initiate metamorphosis independently of growth rate.

    Author: Janel Richter, Lincoln Martin, and Christopher K. Beachy
    Publication: Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp.
    551–554, 2009

    Tadpoles, froglets, and conservation: A discussion of basic principles of rearing and release procedures
    We outline component features of the captive environment and the natural world that
    should be considered when designing a program for head-starting and releasing amphibians,
    presumably as part of a conservation project. The main points indicate the importance of accounting
    for features of the basic biology of amphibian larvae, the biology of the focal species, and highlight
    the types of error risks based on generalities, human convenience, and logistical limitations.
    Similarly, we urge consideration and evaluation of the quality of the metamorphs that are produced
    over the sheer quantity produced and released. While most of the examples are taken from pondbreeding
    species, the general principles are relevant, and details may be modified to fit amphibian
    species with larvae in other habitats.

    Author: Joseph R. Mendelson III and Ronald Altig
    Publication:Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(1) [General Section]: 20–27 (e116)

    Tadpole Husbandry
    Hand-outs from PowerPoint presentation.

    Author: Peter Harlow, Taronga Zoo

  • Desarrollo de Programas

    Amphibian Data Entry Guidelines
    Amphibian life history characteristics can make data entry challenging. Large clutch sizes and an assortment of life stages can generate data entry inconsistencies within and among institutions and studbooks. As many institutions currently hold amphibians, it is becoming clearer that these data can be recorded in a multitude of ways. The following guidelines will clarify amphibian data entry for both institutional registrars and studbook keepers.

    Issued by: Amphibian Ark, AZA Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group, AZA Institutional Data Management Advisory Group, AZA Population Management Center.

    Amphibians and conservation breeding programmes: do all threatened amphibians
    belong on the ark?
    Amphibians are facing an extinction crisis, and conservation breeding programmes are a tool used to prevent imminent species extinctions. Compared to mammals and birds, amphibians are considered ideal candidates for these programmes due to their small body size and low space requirements, high fecundity, applicability of reproductive technologies, short generation time, lack of parental care, hard wired behaviour, low maintenance requirements, relative cost effectiveness of such programmes, the success of several amphibian conservation breeding programmes and because captive husbandry capacity exists. Superficially, these reasons appear sound and conservation breeding has improved the conservation status of several amphibian species, however it is impossible to make generalisations about the biology or geo-political context of an entire class. Many threatened amphibian species fail to meet criteria that are commonly cited as reasons why amphibians are suitable for conservation breeding programmes. There are also limitations associated with maintaining populations of amphibians in the zoo and private sectors, and these could potentially undermine the success of conservation breeding programmes and reintroductions. We recommend that species that have been assessed as high priorities for
    ex situ conservation action are subsequently individually reassessed to determine their suitability for inclusion in conservation breeding programmes. The limitations and risks of maintaining
    ex situ populations of amphibians need to be considered from the outset and, where possible, mitigated. This should improve programme success rates and ensure that the limited funds dedicated to
    ex situ amphibian conservation are allocated to projects which have the greatest chance of success.

    Author: Benjamin Tapley, Kay S. Bradfield, Christopher
    Michaels and Mike Bungard
    Publication: Biodivers Conserv DOI

    CBSG/WAZA Amphibian
    Ex Situ Conservation Planning Workshop Final Report
    From 12-15 February 2006, CBSG and WAZA hosted an Amphibian Ex Situ Conservation Planning Workshop in El Valle, Panama. Unlike the prior meeting in DC, this group called upon only those amphibian biologists with expertise in the issues surrounding captive maintenance of amphibians. Fifty such people from 14 countries representing every amphibian-inhabited continent divided into four working groups to develop strategies for Organization of the
    ex situ community, Best Practices for husbandry and quarantine, developing objective criteria for Species Selection, and conceptually organizing Rapid Response Programs. The Working Group Reports compiled into this single document represent the
    ex situ community’s plan to address the ex situ conservation components of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan.

    Author: Zippel, K., R. Lacy, and O. Byers (eds.)
    Publication: 2005

    Comissão para e Sobrevivência de Espécies IUCN diretrizes de manejo ex situ
    para a conservação de espécies
    Conforme hábitats e ecossistemas se tornam cada vez mais alterados e as populações cada vez mais impactadas por atividades humanas, um número crescente de espécies irá exigir alguma forma de manejo de seus indivíduos e populações para garantir sua sobrevivência. O manejo
    ex situ é uma opção possivel, que pode contribuir para a conservação das espécies ameaçadas. O objetivo destas diretrizes é fornecer orientações práticas sobre a avaliação de adequação e das exigências de um componente
    ex situ para atingir os objetivos de conservação de uma espécie.

    Author: IUCN SSC
    Publication: Version 2, 2014

    Directrices de Uso de la Gestión Ex situ para la Conservación de Especies
    de la Comisión de Supervivencia de Especies de la UICN
    Se creó un grupo de trabajo para revisar las Directrices Técnicas sobre Gestión de Poblaciones
    Ex Situ para Conservación de UICN para esclarecer el proceso y armonizar las directrices con los avances que habían tenido lugar desde su publicación en 2002. Este proceso comenzó con un análisis de los pasos de toma de decisiones para evaluar las actividades
    ex situ para beneficio de la conservación durante la Reunión Anual de la Comisión de Supervivencia de Especies de la UICN (CSE) y del Grupo de Especialistas en Cría para la Conservación (CBSG) en Colonia, Alemania, en octubre de 2010. Este análisis se llevó a cabo por personas involucradas en diferentes Grupos de Especialistas taxonómicos y disciplinares de la CSE, organizaciones de conservación
    in situ, y la comunidad de zoos y acuarios.

    Author: IUCN/SSC
    Publication: Versión 2.0 agosto 2014

    Guidelines on the Use of Ex Situ Management for Species Conservation
    The aim of these guidelines is to provide practical guidance on evaluating the suitability and requirements of an ex situ component for achieving species conservation objectives. They should not be misconstrued as promoting
    ex situ management over any other form of conservation action, and specific elements should not be selected in isolation to justify
    ex situ management for conservation. These guidelines replace the 2002 IUCN Technical Guidelines on the Management of
    Ex Situ Populations for Conservation.

    Author: IUCN/SSC
    Publication: Version 2, 2014

    IUCN Guidelines for Determining When and How Ex Situ Management Should Be
    Used in Species Conservation
    The Convention on Biological Diversity’s target of halting extinctions by 2020 is less than a handful of years away. Captive, or
    ex situ, management has long been cited as having a potential role to play in the recovery of species, although this remains the subject of debate. IUCN’s Species Survival Commission (IUCN SSC) produced guidelines to assist in identifying when
    ex situ management may contribute to species recovery in 2002. Since then, there have been considerable developments in a range of areas that may influence the design of such programs (e.g., understanding of constraints on breeding programs, development of new techniques and approaches, and strategic planning approaches to species conservation). IUCN SSC has therefore revised its guidance and proposes a five-step process: (1) compile a status review; (2) define the role(s) that
    ex situ management might play; (3) determine the precise nature of the ex situ
    population in order to meet identified role(s); (4) define resources and expertise, and appraise the feasibility and risks; and (5) make a decision that is informed based on the above analysis and transparent. These guidelines offer an objective process for considering the role of
    ex situ management in species conservation.

    Author: Philip J.K. McGowan, Kathy Traylor-Holzer, &
    Kristin Leus
    Publication: Conservation Letters, May 2017, 10(3),

    Principios de Desarrollo y Manejo de Programas de Reproducción en Cautiverio
    para la Conservación de Anfibios
    Uno de los mayores desafíos a enfrentarse con respecto a la conservación de anfibios es el gran número de especies amenazadas a nivel global. Basándonos en nuestra experiencia, el conocimiento y las observaciones de diversos programas en todo el mundo, además de las interacciones con los actores que participan en nuestros talleres y cursos, el Arca de Anfibios ha desarrollado un conjunto de principios generales a tener en cuenta en la fase de desarrollo de un programa de reproducción para la conservación de anfibios.

    Author: Luis Carrillo, Kevin Johnson y Joseph R.
    Mendelson III
    Publication: International Zoo News Vol. 62. No. 2
    (2015), pp. 96-107

    Principles of Program Development and Management for Amphibian Conservation
    Captive Breeding Programs
    One of the biggest challenges in dealing with amphibian conservation is the huge number of species threatened worldwide. Based on our experience, expertise and observations of various programs worldwide, and on interactions with stakeholders participating in our workshops and courses, Amphibian Ark has developed a set of general principles to be considered in the development phase of an amphibian conservation breeding program.

    Author: Luis Carrillo, Kevin Johnson and Joseph R.
    Mendelson III
    Publication: International Zoo News Vol. 62. No. 2
    (2015), pp. 96-107

  • Documentos de Manejo General

    Amphibian Biology And Husbandry (English)

    Author: F. Harvey Pough
    Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

    Amphibian Husbandry Resource Guide (English)
    The Association of Zoos and Aquarium (AZA) Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group (ATAG) created the first version of the Amphibian Husbandry Resource Guide in response to the global amphibian crisis as a user-friendly source to aid in the development of successful amphibian conservation programs. Hopefully this second edition of the guide will not only serve as a resource for amphibian husbandry and management, but will help others solve challenges and create additional space for species in need of immediate conservation.

    Author: (Eds) Vicky A. Poole, National Aquarium – Baltimore and Shelly Grow, Association of Zoos & Aquariums 
    Publication: Edition 2.0, 4 April 2012

    Guía para el Manejo de Anfibios en Cautiverio (Español)
    Esta Guía para el Manejo de Anfibios en Cautiverio le ayudará a proporcionar el mejor cuidado posible para los anfibios a su cargo. Los protocolos exactos para mantener poblaciones de muchas de las especies que requieren de conservación ex situ son desconocidos, pero esta guía ayudará a asegurar que esté utilizando algunas de las mejores técnicas de mantenimiento conocidas, particularmente con el riesgo actual de enfermedades emergentes cuyo arribo en las colecciones debe ser minimizado y cuya emergencia y transporte debe ser manejado.

    Author: (Eds) Vicky A. Poole, National Aquarium – Baltimore and Shelly Grow, Association of Zoos & Aquariums 
    Publication: Edición 1.1, 27 Junio 2008

    Amphibian Resources on the Internet (English)
    The use of amphibians in classrooms and research laboratories has increased, along with a corresponding increase in the amount of information about these animals on the Internet. This review is intended to aid both novices and experts in the search of such information. The bibliography of Internet resources is organized by discipline and includes general and selected species information, taxonomy, natural history, anatomy and histology, physiology, ontogeny, genetics, conservation, toxicology, medicine and surgery, sources (for animals, housing, and research tools), listservs, databases, associations, educational sources, and husbandry.

    Author: Michael W. Nolan and Stephen A. Smith
    Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

    Amphibians Used in Research and Teaching (English)
    Amphibians have long been utilized in scientific research and in education. Historically, investigators have accumulated a wealth of information on the natural history and biology of amphibians, and this body of information is continually expanding as researchers describe new species and study the behaviors of these animals. Amphibians evolved as models for a variety of developmental and physiological processes, largely due to their unique ability to undergo metamorphosis.

    Author: Dorcas P. O’Rourke
    Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

    Ex situ Management of Amphibians (English)
    In December 2013 , the Central Zoo Authority (CZA) organised a workshop “Building National Capacity for ex situ Amphibians Management and Conservation” in Guwahati, where a list target and practice species of amphibians were identified. During this workshop the Central Zoo Authority with the assistance of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and the Zoological Society of London has strengthened national capacity in amphibian management. More than 80 delegates from all over India representing nearly 40 institutions participated in these workshops. The participants were exposed to the specific requirements of amphibians in the design and management of ex situ facilities. The present guidelines on the ex situ management of amphibians are part of output of Ex situ Management of Amphibians the workshop on “Building National Capacity for ex situ Amphibians Management and Conservation” held at the Assam State Zoo, Guwhati, Assam, India during December, 2013.

    Author: Gupta, B.K., Tapley, B., Vasudevan, K., and Goetz, M.
    Publication: 2015

    Marking techniques – What options are there? (English)
    Identification techniques for individual amphibians. (PowerPoint presentation hand outs).

    Author: Gerardo Garcia, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
    Publication: 2009

    The Art of Amphibian Science (English)
    The contributions of amphibians to our understanding of ourselves and our world dates back to the very beginning of science. From the resurgence of science in the Renaissance to the modern science of today, the ability to study amphibians has greatly facilitated our understanding of physiology and basic cellular processes.

    Author: Stephen A. Smith and Michael K. Stoskopf
    Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

    The principles of rapid response for amphibian conservation, using the programmes in Panama as an example (English)
    As a direct response to many threats facing seriously threatened amphibian species, including habitat loss, pollution and, more recently, emerging infectious disease, ex situ captive-breeding programs have proven valuable tools in species preservation. Looking at three specific projects, it can be demonstrated that collaborative efforts and multiple-response methods yield positive results in amphibian conservation and species preservation. At the same time, the lessons learned will be examined in each of these projects to allow for future amphibian conservation programs to consider.

    Author: R. Gagliardo, P. Crump, E. Griffith, J. Mendelson, H. Ross & K. Zippel
    Publication: Int. Zoo Yb. (2008) 42: 125–135

  • Luz y UV

    A Comparison of Responses by Three Broadband Radiometers to Different
    Ultraviolet-B Sources
    Three types of broadband ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiometers were shown to display different irradiances from the same light source. Also, natural light and different lamp types were shown to have different vitamin D–synthesizing potential. Equations relating the irradiance readings from UVB radiometers from Gigahertz-Optik Inc., UVP Inc., and Spectronics Corp. to in vitro vitamin D–synthesizing potential are reported for four UVB sources.

    Author: W.H. Gehrmann, J.D. Horner, G.W. Ferguson, T.C.
    Chen and M.F. Holick
    Publication: Zoo Biology 23:355–363 (2004)

    A Comparison of Vitamin D-Synthesizing Ability of Different Light Sources to
    Irradiances Measured with a Solarmeter Model 6.2 UVB Meter
    Recognition of nutritional metabolic bone disease (= nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism) in herpetological collections in recent years decades has led to an interest in measuring ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-315 nm) in natural light and in vivaria illuminated with artificial lamps.

    Author: W.H. Gehrmann, D. Jamieson, G.W. Ferguson, J.D.
    Horner, T.C. Chen and M.F. Holick
    Publication: Herpetological Review, 2004, 35(4), 361-364

    How much UV-B does my reptile need? The UV-Tool, a guide to the selection of UV
    lighting for reptiles and amphibians in captivity
    Guidance is almost non-existent as to suitable levels of UV lighting for reptiles and amphibians, or how to achieve satisfactory UV gradients using artificial lighting. The UV-Tool is a working document that seeks to address this problem, by considering the range of UV experienced by each species in the wild. The UV-Tool contains an editable and expanding database of the microhabitat requirements and basking behaviour of reptile and amphibian species, as derived from field studies, or inferred from observed behaviour in captivity. Since an animal’s UV-B exposure is determined by its behaviour within its native microhabitat, estimation of its natural range of daily UV-B exposure is then possible. The current version of the UV-Tool assigns 254 species to each of four ‘zones’ of UV-B exposure (Ferguson zones) based upon UV-index measurements. Once the likely UV requirement of any species of reptile or amphibian is ascertained, the next step is to plan safe but effective UV gradients within the captive environment. To do this requires knowledge of the UV spectrum and output of the lamps to be used. The UV-Tool therefore includes test reports and UV-index gradient maps for commercially available UV-B lighting products, and a guide to selection of appropriate lamps for use in vivaria and in larger zoo enclosures. There are reports on 24 different products in the current version of the UV-Tool. This document has been compiled by members of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquaria (BIAZA) Reptile and Amphibian Working Group (RAWG) with contributions from zookeepers and herpetologists from the UK and abroad. Further input is welcome and encouraged.

    Author: Frances Baines, Joe Chattell, James Dale, Dan
    Garrick, Iri Gill, Matt Goetz, Tim Skelton and Matt Swatman
    Publication: Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 4(1)

    Larval amphibians seek warm temperatures and do not avoid harmful UVB radiation
    Habitat use by animals often reflects the balance between conflicting demands such as foraging and avoiding predation. Environmental stressors such as temperature can also affect habitat use in many organisms, particularly in ectothermic animals. For example, warm, shallow thermal regimes in ponds can optimize growth and developmental rate of amphibian larvae but may also expose larvae to potentially harmful levels of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Thus, optimally, amphibians seeking sunlight for thermoregulation must balance this behavior while limiting their exposure to harmful UVB radiation. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to test the hypothesis that larval amphibians avoid UVB by selecting microhabitats with lower exposure to UVB.

    Author: Betsy A. Bancroft, Nick J. Baker, Catherine L.
    Searle, Tiffany S. Garcia and Andrew R. Blaustein
    Publication: Behavioral Ecology Advance Access
    publication 21 April 2008

    Meeting Ultraviolet B Radiation Requirements of Amphibians in Captivity: A Case
    Study With Mountain Chicken Frogs (Leptodactylus fallax) and General
    Recommendations for Pre-Release Health Screening
    Conservation breeding programmes are a tool used to prevent amphibian extinctions. The husbandry requirements of amphibians are complex. Ongoing research is needed to ensure optimal management of those captive-bred animals destined, in particular, for reintroduction. The UV-B and vitamin D3 requirements of amphibians are largely unknown. Metabolic bone disease has been reported in a number of species. We demonstrate here that, through the appropriate provision of a combination of both V-B radiation and dietary supplementation,
    L. fallax can be bred and reared in captivity with healthy skeletal development.

    Author: Tapley, B., Rendle, M, Baines, F.M., Goetz, M,
    Bradfield, K.S., Rood, D., Lopez, J., Garcia, G., and Routh, A.
    Publication: Zoo Biology 9999 : 1–7 (2014)

    Rays and mild climate deadly for frogs
    A Brisbane scientist has discovered that even small doses of ultra violet radiation during mild temperatures can be fatal for frogs.
    Story printed on: May 26, 2006, 5:07 pm.
    Story from UQ NEWS ONLINE:

    Publication: UQ News Online, May 2006

    The lunar cycle: a cue for amphibian reproductive phenology?
    Lunar cycles give rise to cues that can be recognized by animals, including changes in light intensity, geomagnetism and gravity. Many environmental variables affect reproductive timing in amphibians and we tested the hypothesis that lunar cycles provide one of the cues for amphibian breeding phenology.

    Author: Rachel A. Grant, Elizabeth A. Chadwick, Tim
    Publication: Animal Behaviour, (2009)

    UV-B, Vitamin D3, and amphibian health and behaviour
    This document provides a short summary of the biological issues concerning studies of Vitamin D3 and UV-B metabolism in amphibians. We also present some simple experimental designs.

    Author: Robert Browne, Francis Vercammen, Elfi
    Verschooren and Rachael E. Antwis
    Publication: AArk Science and Research portal

    UV-lamps for Terrariums: Thier Spectral Characteristics and Efficiency in
    Promoting Vitamin D3 Synthesis by UVB Irradiation
    Sufficient irradiation within a narrow sub-band of the UVB range is a prerequisite for the photosynthesis of vitamin D3 in skin. Although radiation below wavelength of 300 nm (nanometres) promotes photosynthesis of vitamin D3, radiation above 300 nm destroys vitamin D3 that has been already synthesised in skin tissue or nutritionally obtained. In the study, the characteristics of light produced by fourteen different models of UV and full spectrum lamps specifically designed for terrarium use were measured over a range of 250–800 nm.

    Author: Jukka Lindgren
    Publication: Herpetomania 13 3-4/2004

    UVB to Calcium cycle

    Vitamin D and Ultraviolet Radiation: Meeting Lighting Needs for Captive Animals (English)
    Most animals meet their vitamin D needs through diet or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, rickets and osteomalacia, classic consequences of calcium and vitamin D deficiency, are problems in a number of captive species, including certain basking reptiles and nursing primates, when little or no access is provided to natural sunlight. Artificial light is commonly used to promote the health of animals housed indoors. However, to be effective and safe, the lamps used must emit radiant energy of appropriate UV wavelengths and intensity.

    Author: Joni B. Bernard
    Publication: AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook (1997)

  • Manejo Específico de Taxón

    Agalychnis lemur – Husbandry Guidelines (2012)

    Author: Tim Skelton
    Publication: January 2011 [revised July 2012]

    Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for Midwife toads
    (Alytes sp.)
    Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves committed.

    The information in this Best Practice Guideline has come from a variety of sources including an extensive literature review, the experience of the authors and others in the captive husbandry of
    Alytes species as well as direct observations of the species in the field.

    Author: Elizabeth Wells, David Garcia – Alonso ,
    Gonçalo M. Rosa, Gerardo Garcia & Benjamin Tapley
    Publication: Version 1, 2015

    Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for the Lake Oku frog
    Xenopus longipes
    The information in this Best Practice Guideline has come from a variety of sources including a literature review, the experience of the authors and others in the captive husbandry of
    Xenopus longipes as well as direct observations of the species in the field. Amphibian husbandry is a rapidly evolving field and there are many aspects that require further research. Breeding triggers for
    X. longipes are currently unknown; this area should be a focus of further research if captive populations are to be viable. The vocalisation of
    X. longipes has not yet been described and further attempts to document and describe vocalisation should be made as this may facilitate monitoring of the species in Lake Oku.

    Author: Benjamin Tapley, Christopher Michaels, Luke
    Harding, Zoe Bryant, Iri Gill, Sebastian Grant, Nicole Chaney, Freeland Dunker,
    Brian Freiermuth, Jarrod Willis, David Blackburn & Thomas Doherty‐Bone
    Publication: EAZA, 2016

    An Attempt to Breed Atelopus flavescens by Artificial Means
    From http://www.treewalkers.org

    Author: Peter Mudde
    Publication: Leaf Litter Vol. 1, Number 1 Spring 2007

    An overview of current efforts to conserve the Critically Endangered mountain
    chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) on Dominica
    Dominica was once the stronghold of one of the giants amongst frogs: the mountain chicken (Leptodactylus fallax).
    L. fallax is the largest amphibian in the Caribbean region. In December 2002, the presence of dead and sick
    L. fallax came to the attention of the authorities in Dominica. Over the following twelve to eighteen months, the Dominican
    L. fallax population crashed to the extent that no animals could be detected during routine surveys.

    Author: Benjamin Tapley, Luke Harding, Machel Sulton,
    Stephen Durand, Minchinton Burton, Jenny Spencer, Reginald Thomas, Trevorne
    Douglas, Jacqueline Andre, Randolph Winston, Meckeith George, Marta
    Gaworek-Michalczenia, Mike Hudson, Alex Blackman, James Dale and Andrew A.
    Publication: The Herpetological Bulletin 128, 2014: 9-11

    Aspects of captive husbandry of Taylor’s Bug-eyed Frog, Theloderma stellatum
    Taylor’s Bug-eyed Frog (Theloderma stellatum) is a small Rhacophorid listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List as the extent of its habitat is declining and becoming increasingly degraded (IUCN et al., 2006). It has been recorded in eastern Thailand and south of central Vietnam and southern Laos (Orlov et al., 2002). Recently
    T. stellatum has been recorded in Eastern Cambodia (Stuart et al., 2006).

    Author: Benjamin Tapley, Durrell Wildlife Conservation
    Publication: Herpetological Bulletin [2009] – Number 108

    Atelopus (varius) zeteki – Husbandry Manual
    As a precautionary measure against extinction, ex situ populations of golden frogs are being maintained. Over two dozen founder pairs of have successfully spawned producing thousands of offspring.

    Author: Vicky Poole, National Aquarium in Baltimore
    Publication: Second edition, 2006

    Captive Reproduction of the Orange-legged Monkey Frog (Phyllomedusa
    ), and Development of a Protocol for Phyllomedusine Frog
    Reproduction in the Laboratory

    Author: Danté Fenolio, Amphibia Research Group
    Publication: Advances in Herpetoculture, 1996, 13-21

    Centrolenid (Glass Frog) Husbandry
    The purpose of the Specialty Taxa Monograph is to provide more information on husbandry and breeding of different taxa that may be encountered in amphibian collections. It is intended to be an addendum to the Basic Husbandry Monograph, where basic principles are addressed. Some husbandry specifics are based on experience at the Atlanta Botanical Garden (ABG) and others may experience different results.

    Author: Robert Hill and Ron Gagliardo, Atlanta
    Botanical Garden
    Publication: Version 1, April 2008

    Conservación ex situ del Sapo Arlequin de Wampukrum, de la Rana de
    Cristal de McDiarmid y la rana de Cristal Sabetari en el Centro de Conservación
    de Anfibios – Zoo Amaru
    El Centro de Conservación de Anfibios – Zoo AMARU en Cuenca (ACC-Amaru), se dedica a ayudar a salvar los anfibios en peligro de extinción en Ecuador y actualmente mantiene poblaciones de varios anfibios en peligro de extinción únicos para la Cordillera del Cóndor, incluyendo el Sapo Arlequin Wampukrum (Atelopus wampukrum
    sp. nov.), la Rana de Cristal de McDiarmid (Rulyrana mcdiarmidi) y la rana de Cristal Sabetari (Cochranella erminea).

    Author: Fausto Siavichay Pesántez y Carlos C. Martínez
    Publication: AArk Newsletter, December 2015

    Cría en cautividad y uso sostenible de la rana gigante del lago Titicaca (Telmatobius
    Entre febrero de 2001 y enero de 2002 se realizaron estudios orientados a la conservación de la rana gigante del lago Titicaca (Telmatobius culeus), especie endémica amenazada por el comercio ilegal. Fueron realizados ensayos de cría en diversos ambientes.

    Between February 2001 and January 2002, I studied the breeding biology of the Lake Titicaca giant frog (Telmatobius culeus). This frog is endemic to the Lake Titicaca, and is threatened by the illegal trade. The study included evaluations of the response to various enclosures.

    Author: María Esther Pérez Beja
    Publication: Monogr. Herpetol. (2005) 7:261-271

    Distribution of Typhlonectes natans in Colombia, environmental parameters
    and implications for captive husbandry
    Caecilians (Order Gymnophiona) remain enigmatic to a large extent. Their tropical distribution and often subterranean habits mean that they are rarely encountered in routine herpetological surveys (Gower & Wilkinson, 2005). The population and therefore conservation status of many caecilian species is unknown (IUCN et al., 2006).

    Author: Benjamin Tapley and Andrés Rymel Acosta-Galvis
    Publication: Herpetological Bulletin [2010] – Number 113

    Echinotriton andersoni Taxon Management Account

    Author: Compiled by Kevin Zippel
    Publication: March 2000

    Elevage d’une Rainette marsupiale arboricole des forêts nuageuses équatoriennes,
    Gastrotheca plumbea (Boulenger)
    Breeding a marsupial tree frog from the cloud forest of Ecuador Gastrotheca plumbea (Boulenger).

    Author: Michèle Auber-Thomay, Luis Coloma and Giovanni
    Onore, Revue française d’aquariologie
    Publication: Revue fr. Aquariol., 17 (1990), 2, 15
    Novembre 1990

    Ex situ conservation of the Wampukrum Harlequin Toad, McDiarmid’s Glass
    Frog, and Sabetari Glass Frogs at the Amphibian Conservation Center – Zoo Amaru
    The Amphibian Conservation Center – Zoo AMARU in Cuenca (ACC-Amaru), is dedicated to helping save Ecuador’s endangered amphibians and currently holds populations of several endangered amphibians unique to Cordillera del Condor, including the Wampukrum Harlequin Toad (Atelopus wampukrum
    sp. nov.), McDiarmid’s Glass Frog (Rulyrana mcdiarmidi), and Sabetari Glass Frogs (Cochranella erminea).

    Author: Fausto Siavichay Pesántez and Carlos C.
    Martínez Rivera
    Publication: AArk Newsletter, December 2015

    Ex situ conservation program for the Andean Marsupial Tree Frog
    The Quito Zoo in Guayllabamba, Ecuador began an ex situ conservation program for the Andean Marsupial Tree Frog (Gastrotheca riobambae) in November 2014 with specimens collected from populations in the north east of Pichincha. These adults are currently on display, although the first tadpoles to be bred at the Zoo have been transferred to a separate management area at the Zoo.

    Author: María Teresa Alvear and Diego Almeida Reinoso
    Publication: AArk Newsletter, June 2015

    Guia para el manejo de Ambystoma dumerilii

    Author: Erika Servín Zamora
    Publication: June 2017

    Guia para el manejo de Aromobates meridensis

    Author: Osmary Leal y Enrique La Marca
    Publication: Mayo 2017

    Guia para el manejo de Leptodactylus sp.

    Author: Enrique La Marca
    Publication: Junio 2017

    Guía para el manejo ex-situ de Mannophryne collaris

    Author: Enrique La Marca
    Publication: Mayo 2016

    Husbandry Guidelines, Mannophryne collaris

    Author: Enrique La Marca
    Publication: May 2016

    Mantella aurantiaca Ex Situ Management Guidelines

    Author: Craig Walker and Richard Gibson, ZSL; Devin
    Edmonds , Association Mitsinjo
    Publication: February 2013

    Neurergus kaiseri Ex Situ Management Guidelines

    Author: Compiled by Helena Olsson and edited by Richard

    New Zealand Native Frog Captive Husbandry Manual
    The principal audience for this document are employees of the New Zealand Department of Conservation and any external organisation or individual with an interest or intent to keep and maintain
    Leiopelma frogs in captivity.

    Author: Nadia Webster, Department of Conservation
    Publication: May 2004

    Notes on the captive husbandry and breeding of the Shovel-footed Squeaker,
    Arthroleptis stenodactylus
    This species is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red list due to its widespread distribution and tolerance of a range of habitats. it is notable, however, that it may represent a complex of cryptic species, and taxonomic revision of the complex is required (Channing & Howell, 2006).
    Arthroleptis stenodactylus is found throughout coastal Kenya, eastern and southern Tanzania, the island of Zanzibar, Mozambique, Zambia, the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo to western Angola, northern Botswana, Zimbabwe and north-eastern South Africa.

    Author: Benjamin Tapley
    Publication: Number 110 – Herpetological Bulletin [2009]

    Observations on the Captive Reproduction of the Horned Marsupial Frog
    Gastrotheca cornuta
    (Boulenger 1898)
    The marsupial frogs (Family Hemiphractidae) from Latin America are some of the most intriguing anuran species known. As their name implies, females of these frogs bear a dorsal pouch in which they carry eggs, tadpoles and/or froglets.

    Author: Ronald Gagliardo, Edgardo Griffith, Robert
    Hill, Heidi Ross, Joseph R. Mendelson III, Elizabeth Timpe, Brad Wilson
    Publication: Herpetological Review, 2010, 4(1), 52-58

    Observations sur le développement de la Rainette Marsupiale, Gastrotheca

    Author: Michèle Auber-Thomay and Francoise Letellier
    Publication: Rev. fr. Aquariol., 13 (1986), 3, 15
    Novembre 1986

    Phyllomedusine (Leaf Frog) Husbandry

    Author: Ron Gagliardo, Amphibian Ark
    Publication: Version 2, April 2009

    Programa de conservación ex situ de la rana marsupial andina
    El Zoológico de Quito en Guayllabamba, Ecuador inició el programa de conservación
    ex situ de la Rana Marsupial Andina (Gastrotheca riobambae) en Noviembre de 2014 con ejemplares provenientes de las poblaciones del Nor Oriente de Pichincha. Estos ejemplares adultos se encuentran actualmente en exhibición, de los cuales se obtuvieron los primeros renacuajos, que posteriormente fueron trasladados al área de manejo
    ex situ del Zoológico.

    Author: María Teresa Alvear y Diego Almeida Reinoso
    Publication: AArk Newsletter, June 2015

    Puerto Rican Crested Toad (Peltophryne lemur) Husbandry Manual
    Puerto Rican Crested Toads, Peltophryne lemur are the only native species of toad found in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This is a medium sized toad (64 to 120 mm snout-vent length) with distinctive supraorbital crests and a prominent upturned nose.

    Author: Andrew Lentini, Toronto Zoo
    Publication: 2006/2007 update

    Relating natural climate and phenology to captive husbandry in two midwife toads
    (Alytes obstetricans and A. cisternasii) from different climatic
    Captive husbandry and breeding may be pivotal to the successful conservation of many amphibian species, with captive stock providing research subjects, educational tools and animals for release into the wild. Husbandry protocols are missing for many species and sub-optimal for many more, which may limit the success of captive breeding attempts. It has been suggested that observations and environmental data taken from species in nature may be used to infer optimal captive conditions for amphibians. For species where data from the wild are not available, ‘analogue’, that is closely related but more accessible species, may be used as surrogates to inform captive husbandry to some degree. These hypotheses, although logically cogent, are not well tested in amphibians. In particular, the suitability of analogue species based on some knowledge of basic ecology and biology is frequently not assessed. We show that captive husbandry requirements and breeding stimuli correlate with field data and phenology in wild populations of the midwife toads
    Alytes obstetricans and A. cisternasii. In particular, the provision of hot summer temperatures following a cold brumation period of suitable duration may be important for breeding the western-central European
    A. obstetricans. Conversely, the Iberian A. cisternasii responds to hot summer temperatures with a rest period and reproduces in the cooler autumn and winter months. Brooding success was highly variable in
    A. obstetricans and smaller than records from wild toads, possibly due to the young age of breeding stock. Clutch size was similar in
    A. cisternasii to records from wild counterparts. Although specific breeding triggers and annual temperature requirements are likely to vary between localities for both species, these observations provide some useful data on the indoor breeding of both species. Our results also highlight the relevance of field data in designing captive husbandry protocols, while illustrating the inappropriateness of using one species as an analogue for the other in terms of husbandry requirements unless basic aspects of natural history, ecology and phenology can be shown to be broadly similar.

    Author: Christopher J. Michaels, Michael Fahrbach, Luke
    Harding, Zoe Bryant, Joseph-Smiley Capon-Doyle, Sebastian Grant, Iri Gill,
    Benjamin Tapley
    Publication: Alytes 2016 | Volume 33 | Pages 2-11

    Species profile: Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes)
    The Critically Endangered Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes) conforms to IUCN Red List, Amphibian Ark guidelines and EDGE assessments as a priority candidate for a conservation breeding program supported by a Taxon Management Plan. This population is under threat of extinction from the possible introduction of exotic fish, disease, invasive species and habitat modification. In 2008 a population census of
    X. longipes recognised the safety of removing founders to establish an international conservation breeding program.

    Author: Browne RK, Blackburn DC, Doherty-Bone T
    Publication: 2009

    Towards evidence-based husbandry for caecilian amphibians: Substrate preference
    in Geotrypetes seraphini (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae)
    Maintaining caecilians in captivity provides opportunities to study life-history, behaviour and reproductive biology and to investigate and to develop treatment protocols for amphibian chytridiomycosis. Few species of caecilians are maintained in captivity and little has been published on their husbandry. We present data on substrate preference in a group of eight Central African
    Geotrypetes seraphini (Duméril, 1859).

    Author: Benjamin Tapley, Zoe Bryant, Sebastian Grant,
    Grant Kother, Yedra Feltrer, Nic Masters, Taina Strike, Iri Gill, Mark Wilkinson
    & David J Gower
    Publication: The Herpetological Bulletin 129, 2014: 15-18

  • "Planes

    Ex Situ Management Guidelines – Neurergus kaiseri


    Author: Compiled by Helena Olsson edited by Richard Gibson

    Long-Term Recovery Strategy for the Critically Endangered Mountain Chicken
    The mountain chicken’s perilous situation has brought together the conservation
    efforts taking place in both Dominica and Montserrat to produce the unified
    strategy presented in this document for trying to reverse the trajectory of the
    species towards extinction. This Long-term Recovery Strategy will promote closer
    collaboration between our partners in Montserrat and further afield and
    encourage the exchange of ideas and methods we are developing to effect the
    recovery of this iconic species. The Strategy is aligned with the Dominica
    National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014-2020 which sets out a series
    of actions to minimise the loss of biodiversity in Dominica. The Strategy will
    help deliver this goal, supported by the crapaud captive breeding centre that
    has been established in our country.

    Author: Adams, S L, Morton, M N, Terry, A, Young, R P,
    Dawson, J, Martin, L, Sulton, M, Hudson, M, Cunningham, A, Garcia, G, Goetz, M,
    Lopez, J, Tapley, B, Burton, M and Gray, G.
    Publication: 2014

    National Recovery Plan for Booroolong Frog (Litoria booroolongensis)

    This document constitutes the national recovery plan for the booroolong frog (Litoria
    ) in Australia. It identifies actions to be undertaken to
    ensure the long-term viability of the species in nature, and current
    stakeholders involved in this recovery program.

    Author: Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW)
    Publication: 2012

    National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog, Philoria frosti

    This document constitutes the revision of the first Recovery Plan for the Baw
    Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) (Hollis 1997) in Australia. The plan assesses
    the performance of the previous plan, and considers the future conservation,
    management and research requirements for the species. It identifies conservation
    objectives, the actions to be taken to ensure the species’ long-term survival
    prospects across its distribution, and the parties responsible for their
    implementation. It also identifies criteria for which the success of
    implementation of actions will be assessed. The actions identified will be
    undertaken or managed by the Victorian Department of Sustainability and
    Environment, Parks Victoria, Mt Baw Baw Alpine Resort Management Board,
    Amphibian Research Centre, James Cook University and selected external
    consultants. Successfully achieving the objectives of this Recovery Plan is
    subject to budgetary and other constraints affecting the parties involved. The
    plan may also be subject to amendments in the event of new information, or
    following recommended changes by the Baw Baw Frog Recovery Team.

    Author: Hollis, G.J., Department of Sustainability and
    Environment, East Melbourne
    Publication: 2011

    National Recovery Plan for the Southern Bell Frog Litoria raniformis

    Concern about the decline of amphibians around the world has been increasing for
    more than a decade. The Southern Bell Frog
    Litoria raniformis is one such declining species. Once one of the most
    common frogs in many parts of south-eastern Australia, the range of this species
    has declined markedly, and loss of populations has resulted in a fragmented,
    disjunct distribution. The Southern Bell Frog is listed as Vulnerable under the
    Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC
    Act). It is also listed as Endangered in New South Wales (Threatened Species
    Conservation Act 1995), Vulnerable in South Australia (National Parks and
    Wildlife Act 1972) and Tasmania (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995), and
    Threatened in Victoria (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988). Current threats
    include habitat loss and degradation, barriers to movement, predation, disease
    and exposure to biocides. This Recovery Plan summarises current knowledge of the
    Southern Bell Frog, documents the research and management actions undertaken to
    date, and identifies the actions required and organisations responsible to
    ensure the ongoing viability of the species in the wild

    Author: Nick Clemann and Graeme R. Gillespie
    Publication: Department of Sustainability and Environment,
    Melbourne, 2012

    National Recovery Plan for the Stuttering Frog, Mixophyes balbus

    This Recovery Plan summarises our current knowledge of the Stuttering Frog (Mixophyes
    ) in Australia, documents the conservation research and management
    actions undertaken to date, and identifies the actions required and parties
    responsible to ensure the ongoing viability of this species in the wild.
    Achieving the objectives of this Recovery Plan is subject to budgetary and other
    constraints affecting the parties involved. It is necessary that this Recovery
    Plan be viewed as dynamic, such that changes are made in the priority or
    structure of recovery actions as new information arises.

    Author: David Hunter and Graeme Gillespie
    Publication: Department of Sustainability and Environment,
    Melbourne, 2011

    Plan de Acción para Aromobates meridensis

    Author: Osmary Leal Peroza y Enrique La Marca, Universidad
    de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela.
    Publication: Mayo 2017

    Plan de Acción para Leptodactylus sp. (Sapito silbador de Mérida)


    Author: Enrique La Marca, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida,
    Publication: Mayo 2017

    Pool Frog Species Action Plan
    This document outlines the actions required to conserve the pool frog (Pelophylax
    lessonae) in Britain and provides a framework for all conservation work.
    More detail of each action is provided in the implementation guide. Each action
    has been assigned the appropriate level for implementation i.e. United Kingdom,
    country, region or local. Key actions have been identified through a
    ‘signposting’ exercise; these statements are shown in two shades of green and
    the corresponding signposted actions are marked with a similarly coloured
    signpost symbol.

    Author: Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Trust
    Publication: July 2009

    Southern Corroboree Frog and Northern Corroboree Frog National Recovery Plan

    This document constitutes the national recovery plan for the southern corroboree
    frog (Pseudophryne corroboree) and northern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne
    ) in eastern Australia. It identifies actions to be undertaken to
    ensure the long-term viability of both species in nature, and current
    stakeholders involved in their recovery. This is the first national recovery
    plan for the northern corroboree frog and the second for the southern corroboree

    Author: David Hunter
    Publication: Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW), 2012

    Species Management Guidelines for Mountain Chicken, Leptodactylus fallax


    Author: Richard Gibson, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
    Publication: July 2001

    Taxon Management Plan – Lake Oku Clawed Frog (Xenopus longipes)

    Author: Robert Browne, Thomas Doherty-Bone, David Blackburn
    Publication: 2nd Draft 15/03/2009

    Taxon Management Plan – Mantella aurantiaca

    Author: F. Andreone, R. Gibson, F. Mattioli
    Publication: 2nd draft, May 2007

    Taxon Management Plan – Neurergus microspilotus

    Author: Robert Browne and Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani
    Publication: September 2009

    Taxon Management Plan – Ranitomeya (Dendrobates) imitator


    Author: Tree Walkers International

    Taxon Management Plan: Oregon Spotted Frog, Rana pretiosa


    Author: Karen Goodrowe Beck
    Publication: March 2009

    Yellow-spotted Bell Frog (Litoria castanea) and Peppered Frog (Litoria
    ) Recovery Plan
    The Yellow-spotted Bell Frog and the Peppered Tree Frog are two frog species
    endemic to the highlands and tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. The
    Yellow-spotted Bell Frog also occurs in the Australian Capital Territory.
    Neither species has been definitely recorded in the wild since the mid 1970s,
    and concerns are held for their continued survival. In a formal response to
    these concerns, both species have been listed under the NSW Threatened Species
    Conservation Act 1995 (TSC Act). The aim of this recovery plan is to assist in
    returning these two species to a position of viability in nature.

    Author: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
    Publication: 20 February 2004

  • Planes Nacionales de Acción contra los Anfibios

    A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar
    The Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar (ACSAM) represents an effort to implement the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan at a regional scale and promises to serve as a model for similar initiatives across the globe. The effort is both timely and critically important, being in a top priority region. Madagascar boasts more than 235 described amphibian species, over 99% of which are endemic, and at least as many more await description. As a country it consistently falls in the top dozen in the world for total number of amphibian species (12th), number of threatened species (11th) and number of endemics (4 th). With the new species currently awaiting description, these figures will likely increase dramatically in the near future.

    Author: Franco Andreone (Editor)
    Publication: Ver 1, 2008

    ARAZPA (ZAA) Amphibian Action Plan
    This document is a strategic plan of action for ARAZPA institutions to respond to the current conservation crisis facing amphibians. Its intent is to provide direction for zoological institutions to increase their capacity in amphibian
    ex situ management in ways that maximise their ability to support amphibian conservation priorities. This Plan has been prepared in consultation with the ARAZPA Reptile & Amphibian TAG, external regional and global expertise in
    ex situ amphibian management, and the broader amphibian conservation and research community.

    Author: Compiled by Graeme Gillespie, Russel Traher and
    Chris Banks, Zoos Victoria
    Publication: June 2007

    ASG Captive Breeding Working Group Action Plan
    The vision, goals and actions for captive amphibian conservation programs, generated by the ASG Captive Breeding Working. This document updates and replaces the Captive Breeding chapter of the 2007 Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP).

    Author: ASG Captive Breeding Working Group
    Publication: June 2016

    China Herpetological Conservation Action Plan: Amphibians
    In 2005, the World Conservation Union Species Survival Commission (IUCN SSC) set up the Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG) and ASG-China Region to target amphibian conservation. In 2008, the conference for the China Amphibian Conservation Action Plan was held with the support of Conservation International. Following this conference, in August 2010, a follow up meeting held in Guilin, brought together committee members and herpetologists. It was here that the China Amphibian Conservation Action Plan was initiated and formulated.

    Author: LI Pi-peng, Shenyang Normal University
    Publication: December 2010

    Estrategia para la Conservación de Anfibios Críticamente Amenazados en Chiapas,
    (Strategy for the Conservation of Critically Endangered Amphibians in Chiapas, Mexico)

    Chiapas, al igual que México, destaca por su elevada riqueza de anfibios, producto de la variedad de condiciones biogeográficas y geológicas que se presentan en su territorio. Del total de anfibios registrados para el país, en el estado de Chiapas el grupo de los anfibios está representado por tres órdenes, 12 familias, 33 géneros y 108 especies. De dicho número, 81 especies corresponden al orden Anura, 25 al Caudata y 2 al Gymnophiona (modificado de Luna-Reyes et al., 2005). Las familias con más géneros corresponden a Hylidae (15) y Plethodontidae (6), mientras que las que incluyen un mayor número de especies son Hylidae (32), Plethodontidae (25), Craugastoridae (24) y Bufonidae (11).

    Author: Luna-Reyes, R., A et al.
    Publication: Febrero de 2010

    Estrategia para la Conservación de los Anfibios en Mesoamérica
    (Strategy for the Conservation of Mesoamerican Amphibians)
    Costa Rica es un país en el cual las poblaciones de anfibios y las posibles causas que están produciendo su declinación continuamente están siendo estudiadas. Dos evaluaciones sobre el estado de conservación de los anfibios fueron hechos en 2002, cuando las 180 especies descritas en ese entonces para Costa Rica fueron evaluadas en un Taller para la Evaluación del Estado de Conservación y Plan de Manejo (CAMP), Y posteriormente en ese año, se dieron las discusiones para la porción de Costa Rica del Análisis Global de Anfibios (GAA), donde se revisó completamente el estado de las poblaciones de los Anfibios en Centroamérica. Después de estos análisis de conservación, varias organizaciones e instituciones de Costa Rica trabajaron una Estrategia Nacional para la Conservación de los Anfibios en el 2006. Esta estrategia estableció que las acciones de conservación para este grupo deberían hacerse en tres áreas principales: conservación
    ex situ, conservación in situ y entrenamiento y educación.

    Author: Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Rodríguez, J.E. y
    Matamoros, Y. (Eds.)
    Publication: 2014

    Plan de Acción para la Conservación de Anfibios en Panamá
    (Action Plan for the Conservation of Amphibians in Panama)

    En esta oportunidad la Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente, a través de la Dirección de Áreas Protegidas y Vida Silvestre, acatando lo estipulado en la Resolución AG-0467-2009, se complace en presentar el Plan de Acción para la Conservación de Anfibios en Panamá. El mismo es el resultado del trabajo conjunto y de forma coordinada entre la ANAM, entidad autónoma rectora del Estado en materia de recursos naturales y las organizaciones dedicadas a la investigación y conservación de los anfibios. La formulación de este plan constituye la primera de una serie de acciones a implementarse con la finalidad de hacerle frente a la alarmante declinación de los anfibios en el territorio nacional. El mismo integra actividades específicas de investigación, conservación y educación, a corto y mediano plazo; por tal razón instamos a los grupos de interés y comunidad en general, a participar en el desarrollo de esta iniciativa, con la determinación de salvaguardar nuestro patrimonio natural.

    Author: Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente
    Publication: 2011

    Plan de acción para la conservación de los anfibios amenazados de Bolivia
    (Action plan for the conservation of threatened amphibians of Bolivia).

    El Plan Nacional para la Conservación de los anfibios amenazados de Bolivia, aglutina las gestiones, acciones y emprendimientos que instituciones, científicos y el estado nacional deben desarrollar a favor de la conservación de estas especies emblemáticas en el próximo lustro, y que han sido identificados por los mismos actores mencionados. En conjunto los anfibios constituyen el 28% del total de los vertebrados amenazados del país, lo que lo ubica como el grupo más amenazado de Bolivia y que ahora será objeto de acciones concretas para asegurar su supervivencia en el mediano y largo plazo, y con esto también determinar la conservación de los hábitats donde se desarrollan.

    Author: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua
    Publication: 2012

    Plan de Acción para la Conservación de los Anfibios Amenazados del Departamento
    de la Guajira, Colombia
    (Action Plan for the Conservation of Threatened Amphibians of the Department of La Guajira, Colombia)

    El Plan de Acción para la Conservación de los Anfibios Amenazados de la Guajira (PACAAGUA) contemplara tres componentes principales: El primero tiene que ver con todos estudios de investigación necesarios para conservar las especies de anfibios amenazados del departamento. El segundo es el componente social, en el cual identificará los principales actores sociales que pueden ayudar a ejecutar el PACCAGUA y el tercer componente cons iderara las acciones conservacionistas que los actores sociales pueden llevar acabo apoyados con el componente investigativo. Se espera que el PACAAGUA, como primer plan regional de conservación de Anfibios en Colombia, sea un referente de las acciones y estrategias que promuevan la conservación de los Anfibios amenazados y que se articule a un futuro plan nacional de conservación de los anfibios.

    Author: Bio. Luis Alberto Rueda Solano

    Plan de Acción para la Conservación de los Anfibios del Departamento del Valle
    del Cauca
    (Action Plan for the Conservation of Amphibians of the Department of Valle del Cauca)

    El objetivo de este texto es dar a conocer las necesidades de investigación para la conservación de los anfibios del Valle del Cauca y servir como herramienta que oriente los esfuerzos y permita planear futuras investigaciones al respecto. Además, el documento debe ser revisado periódicamente con el fin de reconocer los avances y evaluar su vigencia de acuerdo con la realidad cambiante. Finalmente, esperamos que el Plan de Acción aquí contenido sirva como incentivo a corporaciones autónomas, institutos de investigación, universidades e investigadores que deseen contribuir al conocimiento y la conservación de este maravilloso grupo animal que son los anfibios.

    Author: Germán Corredor Londoño et al.
    Publication: 2010

    Summary Conservation Action Plans for Mongolian Reptiles and Amphibians
    The reptiles and amphibians of Mongolia were recently assessed using the ‘IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria’ (IUCN, 2001) in conjunction with the ‘Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Levels’ (IUCN, 2003). The assessments were carried out during the Second International Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop from the 11th to 15th September 2006. During the assessment process, groups of participants formulated summary conservation action plans for both threatened and Data Deficient species, outlining recommended conservation measures that could be implemented to help arrest population declines or learn more about their conservation status. Following the workshop, these documents were extensively reviewed by participants and other experts who were unable to attend the workshop.

    Author: Compiled by Terbish, Kh., Munkhbayar, Kh.,
    Clark, E.L., Munkhbat, J. and Monks, E.M.
    Publication: 2006

  • Plantillas de Documento

    Template and guidelines for developing a Species Action/Recovery Plan (English)
    This template has been developed as a guide to assist authors who are writing an action plan for a single amphibian species. It includes a range of suggested sections and sub-sections, along with a brief definition of what should be included in each section. Each country will likely have different needs, and may decide to exclude some of these sections and/or add additional sections. Please note that this template is quite comprehensive, and possibly includes more information than is necessary for a basic plan. The first version of a species action plan does not need to be as detailed – additional information can be added as the plan develops.

    Author: Amphibian Ark
    Publication: 1, 2017

    Modelo y directrices para el desarrollo de una Plan de Acción / Recuperación de Especies (Español)
    Este formato se ha desarrollado como una guía para ayudar a los autores que están escribiendo un plan de acción para una especie de anfibio. Incluye una serie de secciones y sub-secciones sugeridas junto con una breve definición de lo que debe incluirse en cada sección. Cada país probablemente tendrá necesidades diferentes y puede decidir excluir algunas de estas secciones y/o agregar secciones adicionales. Ten en cuenta que este formato es bastante completa y posiblemente, incluye más información de la necesaria para un plan básico. La primera versión de un plan de acción de especies no necesita ser tan detallada – se puede agregar información adicional a medida que el plan se desarrolla.

    Author: Amphibian Ark
    Publication: 1, 2017

    Husbandry Guidelines Template (English)
    MS Word document template for producing amphibian husbandry guidelines. English version.

    Author: AArk / WAZA
    Publication: 2015

    Canevas des Lignes Diretrices d’Elevage (Français )
    MS Word document template for developing amphibian husbandry guidelines. French version.

    Author: AArk / WAZA
    Publication: 2015

    Pautas de Manejo Ex Situ (Español)
    MS Word document template for producing amphibian husbandry guidelines. Spanish version.

    Author: AArk / WAZA
    Publication: 2015

    Template and guidelines for developing a national amphibian action plan (English)
    This template has been developed as a guide to assist authors who are writing a national amphibian action plan. It includes a range of suggested sections and sub-sections, along with a brief definition of what should be included in each section. Each country will likely have different needs, and may decide to exclude some of these sections and/or add additional sections. Please note that this template is very comprehensive, and possibly includes more information than is necessary for a basic plan. The first version of a national action plan does not need to be as detailed – additional information can be added as the plan develops.

    Author: Amphibian Ark
    Publication: 1, 2017

    Formato y lineamientos para el desarrollo de un plan de acción nacional para anfibios (Español)
    Este formato se ha desarrollado como una guía para ayudar a los autores que están escribiendo un plan de acción nacional para anfibios. Incluye una serie de secciones y sub-secciones sugeridas, junto con una breve definición de lo que debe incluirse en cada sección. Cada país probablemente tendrá necesidades diferentes, y puede decidir excluir algunas de estas secciones y/o agregar secciones adicionales. Ten en cuenta que este formato es muy completo y posiblemente, incluye más información de la necesaria para un plan básico. La primera versión de un plan de acción nacional no necesita ser tan detallada – se puede agregar información adicional a medida que el plan se desarrolla.

    Author: Amphibian Ark
    Publication: 1, 2017

  • Presentaciones de Talleres

    Biosecurity (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: Michael McFadden, Taronga Zoo

    Biosecurity (presentation hand-outs)

    Author: Michael McFadden, Taronga Zoo

    Chytridiomycosis (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: Michael McFadden, Taronga Zoo

    Chytridiomycosis (presentation hand-outs)

    Author: Michael McFadden, Taronga Zoo

    Ex-Situ Management Plays a Vital Role in Amphibian Conservation
    (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: Kevin Zippel, Amphibian Ark

    Ex-Situ Management Plays a Vital Role in Amphibian Conservation
    (presentation hand-outs)

    Author: Kevin Zippel, Amphibian Ark

    Introduction to Amphibians (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: Kevin Zippel, Amphibian Ark

    Introduction to Amphibians (Presentation hand-outs) (English)

    Author: Kevin
    Zippel, Amphibian Ark

    Larval Amphibian Ecology (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: Jennifer Pramuk, Bronx Zoo/Wildlife
    Conservation Society

    Larval Amphibian Ecology (presentation hand-outs)

    Author: Jennifer Pramuk, Bronx Zoo/Wildlife
    Conservation Society

    Managed Breeding for Conservation: Sustainability of Ex Situ Populations
    (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: Kevin Zippel, R. Andrew Odum

    Managed Breeding for Conservation: Sustainability of Ex Situ Populations
    (presentation hand-outs)

    Author: Kevin Zippel and R Andrew Odum

    Techniques for gender determination & individual identification in amphibians
    (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: Gerardo Garcia & Kay Bradfield, Durrell
    Wildlife Conservation Trust

    Techniques for gender determination & individual identification in amphibians
    (presentation hand-outs)

    Author: Gerardo Garcia & Kay Bradfield, Durrell
    Wildlife Conservation Trust

    The Principle of Amphibian Husbandry (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: R Andrew Odum, Toledo Zoo 

    The Principle of Amphibian Husbandry (presentation hand-outs)

    Author: R Andrew Odum, Toledo Zoo

    Water Quality and Filtration (PowerPoint presentation)

    Author: Kevin Zippel, Amphibian Ark 

    Water Quality and Filtration (presentation hand-outs)

    Author: Kevin Zippel, Amphibian Ark

  • Recintos

    Building artificial bromeliads (English)
    Used as breeding and retreat sites by some species, such as Eleutherodacylus. For some settings, like terraria in low temperature regimes, bromeliads may be hard to keep and take care off. Functional artificial bromeliads can be made as substitutes.

    Author: Neftalí Ríos-López
    Publication: 2015

    Diseño, construcción y manejo de terrarios (Español)
    Design, construction and management of terrariums. PowerPoint presentation

    Author: Diego Almeida Reinoso
    Publication: December 2016

    Facility Design and Associated Services for the Study of Amphibians (English)
    The role of facilities and associated services for amphibians has recently undergone diversification. Amphibians traditionally used as research models adjust well to captivity and thrive with established husbandry techniques. However, it is now necessary to maintain hundreds of novel amphibian species in captive breeding, conservation research, and biomedical research programs.  Good husbandry techniques must include reliable and species-specific management by trained staff members who receive support from the administration. It is possible to improve husbandry techniques for many species by sharing knowledge through common information systems. Overall, good facility design corresponds to the efficient use of space, personnel, energy, materials, and other resources.

    Author: Robert K. Browne, R. Andrew Odum, Timothy Herman, and Kevin Zippel
    Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

    HabiData – online repository for amphibian and reptile natural history data (English)
    One of the biggest stumbling blocks in designing suitable husbandry protocols for captive amphibians is a lack of information about the conditions they live under in the wild. Providing naturalistic conditions can both improve the health and survivorship of captive animals and also reduce the impact of adaptation to captivity on the gene pool of conservation populations. Habidata is an online resource intended to become a hub or repository for natural history and environmental data from wild amphibian populations.

    Author: Chris Michaels and Rachael Antwis

    Husbandry and enclosure design (English)
    Hand-out pages from PowerPoint presentation.

    Author: Kevin Zippel
    Publication: 2008

    Shipping Containers for Frog and Tadpole Husbandry (English)
    This short manual is intended to be used as a guide for the installation and fit-out of disused shipping containers for the purposes of frog and tadpole husbandry. The benefits of using shipping containers are that they are totally self contained, easily portable, well insulated and readily allow for full quarantine, which is essential for frog conservation programs.

    Author: P. Harlow, M. McFadden & A. Skidmore, Taronga Zoo
    Publication: September 2008 – Version 1.0

  • Reintroducción

    Global Re-introduction Perspectives: 2016 (Amphibian case studies)
    Re-introductions are powerful and important. They are powerful in terms of averting extinction, restoring ecological functions to ecosystems, and returning profound commercial, aesthetic, or cultural value. Re-introductions are important, because they can engage generations across the globe in immediate conservation action that has the potential to make a tangible and pervasive difference.

    The fifth edition of the Global Re-introduction Perspectives, published by the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, contains a wide array of projects ranging from corals to amphibians, crocodiles to condors and African lions to many plant species. All these come with different levels of success and some failures. This shows that reintroduction projects are never easy and require careful planning and implementation to succeed. However, projects, which have not been successful for one reason or another, provide valuable learning experience, so that those shortcomings could be avoided.

    This chapter on Amphibians includes three re-introduction case studies: the Northern Corroboree Frog in Australia, the Agile Frog on Jersey, Channel Islands, and the Northern Leopard Frog in Canada.

    Author: Soorae, P. S. (ed.)
    Publication: 2016

    Guidelines for Reintroductions and Other Conservation Translocations
    The Reintroduction and Invasive Species Specialist Groups’ Task Force on Moving Plants and Animals for Conservation Purposes.

    Conservation translocation is the deliberate movement of organisms from one site for release in another. It must be intended to yield a measurable conservation benefit at the levels of a population, species or ecosystem, and not only provide benefit to translocated individuals. These Guidelines are designed to be applicable to the full spectrum of conservation translocations. They are based on principle rather than example. Throughout the Guidelines there are references to accompanying Annexes that give further detail.

    Author: IUCN/SSC
    Publication: Version 1, 2013

    Translocation Proposal – Securing the Future of Kosciuszko National Park’s
    Unique Frog Fauna
    Extinctions and declines of amphibians worldwide have been occurring at an alarming rate over the past fifty years (Stuart et al. 2004). Australia has not been spared from this biodiversity crisis (Hero & Morrison 2004), and within Kosciuszko National Park (hereafter KNP), five frog species have suffered significant declines since the early 1980’s. These species are now listed as threatened under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995, the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This includes the iconic Southern Corroboree Frog (Pseudophryne corroboree), which is one of Australia’s best known frog species, and is KNP’s only endemic vertebrate. The primary cause of many recent frog declines around the world, including those in KNP, is a disease known as chytridiomycosis, which is caused by infection with the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis,
    Bd). Genetic studies have shown that Bd has only recently spread throughout the world (Morgan et al. 2007, Farrer et al. 2011), explaining why many frog species have limited resistance to this pathogen.

    This document outlines the background information, rationale, and methods for developing new management techniques for the conservation of Kosciuszko National Park’s unique frog fauna. These techniques will aim to bolster the security and capacity of captive breeding programs for threatened frogs through the creation of pathogen/disease free populations in the wild.

    Author: David Hunter, Michael McFadden, Gerry
    Marantelli, Ben Scheele, Raelene Hobbs, Peter Harlow, Chris Banks, Laura
    Brannelly, Lee Skerratt and Lee Berger
    Publication: January 2013

  • Reproducción

    Applied reproductive technologies and genetic resource banking for amphibian
    As amphibian populations continue to decline, both government and non-government organisations are establishing captive assurance colonies to secure populations deemed at risk of extinction if left in the wild. For the most part, little is known about the nutritional ecology, reproductive biology or husbandry needs of the animals placed into captive breeding programs. Academic and zoo scientists are beginning to examine different technologies for maintaining the genetic diversity of founder populations brought out of the wild before the animals become extinct from rapidly spreading epizootic diseases. One such technology is genetic resource banking and applied reproductive technologies for species that are difficult to reproduce reliably in captivity.

    Author: Andrew J. Kouba, and Carrie K. Vance
    Publication: Reproduction, Fertility and Development ,
    2009, 21 , 719–737

    Hormonal induction of spawning in 4 species of frogs by coinjection with a
    gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a dopamine antagonist
    It is well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity. Some methods are based on administration of mammalian hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, which are not effective in many frogs. There is a need for simple, cost-effective alternative techniques to induce spawning. Our approach offers some advantages over other hormonally-based techniques. Both sexes are injected only once and at the same time, reducing handling stress. AMPHIPLEX is a new reproductive management tool for captive breeding in Anura.

    Author: Vance L Trudeau, Gustavo M Somoza, Guillermo S
    Natale, Bruce Pauli, Jacqui Wignall, Paula Jackman, Ken Doe and Fredrick W
    Publication: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2010,
    8 :36

    Hormonal Induction of Spermiation, Courting Behavior and Spawning in the
    Southern Bell Frog, Litoria raniformis
    We trialled the efficacy of various exogenous hormones to induce spermiation, courtship behavior, and spawning in the ‘‘endangered’’ southern bell frog,
    Litoria raniformis. This and earlier studies indicate that in the efficacy of hormonal induction in amphibians varies between taxa, hormones, and genders.

    Author: Reinier M. Mann, Ross V. Hyne, and Catherine B.
    Publication: Zoo Biology 29:774–782 (2010)

    Reproduction and Larval Rearing of Amphibians
    Reproduction technologies for amphibians are increasingly used for the in vitro treatment of ovulation, spermiation, oocytes, eggs, sperm, and larvae. Recent advances in reproduction technologies for amphibians include improved hormonal induction of oocytes and sperm, storage of sperm and oocytes, artificial fertilization, and high-density rearing of larvae to metamorphosis. In both research and captive breeding programs, it is necessary to provide suitable conditions for the rearing of large numbers of a diverse range of species. Compared with traditional systems, the raising of larvae at high densities has the potential to produce these large numbers of larvae in smaller spaces and to reduce costs.

    Author: Robert K. Browne and Kevin Zippel
    Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

  • Salud – Bioseguridad y Cuarentena

    A guide to husbandry and biosecurity standards required for the safe and responsible management of ex situ populations of amphibians (English)

    Ex situ breeding of selected amphibian species is recognised as an essential and integral part of the IUCN Amphibian Conservation Action Plan to stem the loss of amphibian species worldwide. However, the emergence of the infectious disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) as a significant factor in the recent decline and extinction of many amphibian species, raises specific challenges for ex situ conservation. Increasing awareness of biosecurity issues and introducing a quarantine-like approach to amphibian husbandry of enclosures/rooms within an institution and between institutions will significantly reduce the risk of an epidemic outbreak of chytridiomycosis (or other disease) in captivity.

    These standards are based upon those reported in the proceedings of the CBSG/WAZA Amphibian Ex situ Conservation Planning Workshop, El Valle, Panama, 12-15th February 2006.

    Publication: 2008

    Amphibian chytridiomycosis: strategies for captive management and conservation (English)
    Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian species have occurred worldwide over the last three decades owing to the introduction of chytridiomycosis. This emerging infectious disease is caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a virulent water-borne pathogen of many amphibian species. Zoological institutions can play a key role in preventing pathogen spread between captive facilities, and in disease surveillance, captive-breeding and reintroduction programmes, to limit the impact of this formidable disease on wild amphibian populations.

    Author: S. Young, L. Berger and R. Speare, James Cook University
    Publication: Int. Zoo Yb. (2007) 41: 85–95

    Amphibian quarantine protocols: Melbourne Zoo (English)

    Quarantine protocols for Melbourne Zoo’s amphibians have been in operation for many years and are designed to reduce the risk of introducing pathogens to the collection, the spread of pathogens within the collection and the release of pathogens from the facility into receiving collections or free-ranging populations. This report will document existing protocols and provide additional information about diagnostic techniques, disinfection and therapeutic agents that relate to the containment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (fungus causing the disease chytridiomycosis) and other pathogens. It is intended as an information source for both veterinary and keeping staff.

    In: Speare R and Steering Committee of Getting the Jump on Amphibian Disease. Developing management strategies to control amphibian diseases: Decreasing the risks due to communicable diseases. School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University: Townsville. 2001: 157-161.

    Author: Michael Lynch, Melbourne Zoo
    Publication: November 2000

    AZA amphibian quarantine guidelines (English)
    All the classifications and recommendations below were created to form a baseline of information for amphibian management decisions within AZA facilities. The recommendations represent the optimal quality of care that might not be financially or physically possible given a facility’s particular limitations. Therefore this document should not be construed as being mandated policy, but a set of suggestions that can improve amphibian care and conservation programs within participating institutions. The document can also be used to ensure the highest recommended standards possible (such as waste water treatment and solid waste disposal) are incorporated into plans for new amphibian facilities.

    Author: Shannon T. Ferrell, Fort Worth Zoo

    Biosecurity and Permanent Isolation of Ex Situ Conservation Populations (English)
    Implementation of biosecurity practices that reduce the potential for introduction of amphibian infectious diseases to new locations are the responsibility of all institutions that maintain or move captive amphibians. In addition, good biosecurity practices help to reduce the risk posed by infectious diseases on the success and sustainability of captive amphibian programs. This is an extract from the Manual For Control of Infectious Diseases in Amphibian Survival Assurance Colonies and Reintroduction Programs.

    Author: Pessier, A.P. and J.R. Mendelson (eds.)
    Publication: CBSG March 2017

    Código de Práctica del Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force (Español)

    Author: Karen R. Lips, Jaime K. Reaser, Bruce E. Young and Roberto Ibanez
    Publication: SSAR Herpecological Circular No. 30

    Developing management strategies to control amphibian diseases: Decreasing the risks due to communicable diseases (English)
    This document fulfils the scope items for a contract between Environment Australia and Rick Speare of James Cook University to run a Conference / Workshop to develop management strategies to lessen the risk of communicable diseases to wild amphibians. The focus of this document is on formidable infectious diseases of wild amphibians. These are diseases with the potential to cause high levels of illness and death in wild populations. Two diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, were identified as being formidable diseases based on their pathogenicity and potential to cause epidemic deaths. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, was identified as the disease of greatest threat to wild amphibians. This document is a valuable resource to assist us in developing and implementing strategies to manage communicable diseases capable of putting at risk populations of amphibians in the wild.

    Author: Rick Speare, James Cook University
    Publication: Report to Environment Australia, January 2001

    Developing New Amphibian Quarantine Standards and Prerelease  Protocols (English)
    In February 2006, the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) and World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) held an Amphibian Ex-Situ Conservation Planning Workshop in Panama. During this workshop, recommendations where made to upgrade housing and quarantine standards currently in place at zoological institutions. These recommendations were initially criticized by many as being too impractical or extreme for AZA institutions to follow due to lack of resources and funding. However, given the global spread of chytrid fungus and the potential for new pathogens to do the same, the Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group is strongly encouraging institutions (especially those holding species designated for reintroduction) to modify their current husbandry and quarantine standards to comply with the new recommendations.

    Author: Dr. Ryan De Voe, Senior Veterinarian, North Carolina Zoological Park and Jessi Krebs, Supervisor, Reptiles and Amphibians, Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo
    Publication: AZA Connect, February 2007

    Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Herpetology Department Quarantine Service Order and Protocols (English)

    Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
    Publication: February 12, 2018

    Guidelines for minimising disease risks associated with captive breeding, raising and restocking programs for Australian frogs (English)
    The guidelines are intended for use nationally by conservation agencies, zoos, scientific research staff, industry organisations (e.g., the pet industry), students, frog keepers, wildlife rescue and carer groups, frog interest groups/societies and other key interest groups who regularly deal with or are likely to engage in captive breeding, raising and restocking programs for Australian frogs.

    Author: Murray, K., Skerratt, L., Marantelli, G., Berger, L., Hunter, D., Mahony, M. and Hines, H.
    Publication: June 2001

    Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs (English)
    This information circular outlines measures to:

    • Prevent or reduce disease causing pathogens being transferred within and between wild populations of frogs.
    • Ensure captive frogs are not infected prior to release.
    • Deal safely with unintentionally transported frogs.
    • Assist with the proper identification and management of sick and dead frogs in the wild


    Author: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
    Publication: August 2001

    Información básica sobre como reducir el riesgo de transmisión de agentes infecciosos entre ejemplares de anfibios y entre diferentes lugares (Español)
    Objetivos de este documento: Dar a conocer el problema de las enfermedades emergentes de anfibios a los gestores del medio natural, y aportar sugerencias para evitar la transmisión de estos patógenos entre animales, y entre diferentes localidades.

    Author: Jaime Bosch, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    Main preventative management strategies for the Chytrid fungus (English)

    Reducing disease risks in captive amphibians and protecting our wild native amphibians from invasive disease (English)
    Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (B.sal) is a newly-discovered species of chytrid fungus that can infect and kill a wide range of newts and salamanders. This fungus has become established in a few wild amphibian populations in parts of Europe where it is causing devastating population declines. It is thought to be spread internationally by the amphibian trade and unless all concerned (pet traders, scientists and amphibian keepers) take great care and apply some simple biosecurity measures, there is a risk that it could be introduced to captive and wild amphibian populations elsewhere in Europe. B.sal has already been found in captive newts and salamanders in the UK.

    Author: BIAZA
    Publication: June 2015

    Survival of Bd in Water: Quarantine and Disease Control Implications (English)
    Amphibian chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians thought to be moved between countries by trade in infected amphibians. The causative fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, produces aquatic, motile zoospores; infections have been achieved in experiments by exposing amphibians to water containing zoospores. However, the ability of this fungus to survive in the environment in the absence of an amphibian host is unknown. We show that B. dendrobatidis will survive in tap water and in deionized water for 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. In lake water, infectivity was observed for 7 weeks after introduction. The knowledge that water can remain infective for up to 7 weeks is important for the formulation of disease control and quarantine strategies for the management of water that has been in contact with amphibians.

    Author: Megan L. Johnson and Richard Speare
    Publication: Emerging Infectious Diseases • Vol. 9, No. 8, August 2003

  • Salud – Enfermedades

    5-minute Guide to Amphibian Disease (English)
    The amphibian patient is often presented late in the disease process, and the presenting signs are commonly limited to anorexia, weight loss and/or fluid retention. A review of the husbandry and feeding history should be part of any workup. Diagnostic information may be obtained in a manner similar to that used with other vertebrates, although the small size of many patients limits the quantity and usefulness of diagnostic samples.

    Author: Mads Bertelsen and Graham Crawshaw, Toronto Zoo
    Publication: Exotic DVM vol 5.2 May 2003

    American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual – Chytridiomycosis (English)
    Fact sheet on the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of chytridiomycosis.

    Author: Cynthia Stadler
    Publication: May 2013

    American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual – Ranavirus (English)
    Fact sheet on the diagnosis, prevention and control of ranavirus in amphibians.

    Author: Ann E. Duncan
    Publication: August 2013

    De-worming amphibians

    Author: Will Brown and Renee Lizotte

    Disease Treatment and Control

    Among the most important infectious disease issues identified in amphibian
    survival assurance populations are chytridiomycosis,  infection,
    and infection with the rhabditiform nematodes .
    The goals of the medical treatment and other disease control measures described
    in this chapter are to:

    • Mitigate the effects of infectious diseases

    • Reduce the risk that captive amphibian populations could serve as sources of
      population limiting infectious diseases

    • Identify methods that can be used to create specific pathogen free amphibian

    Author: Eric Baitchman

    Diseases of Amphibians

    The development and refinement of amphibian medicine comprise an ongoing science
    that reflects the unique life history of these animals and our growing knowledge
    of amphibian diseases. Amphibians are notoriously fastidious in terms of captive
    care requirements, and the majority of diseases of amphibians maintained in
    captivity will relate directly or indirectly to husbandry and management.

    Author: Christine L. Densmore and David Earl Green
    Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

    Field Guide to Malformations of Frogs and Toads

    In 1995, students found numerous malformed frogs on a field trip to a Minnesota
    pond. Since that time, reports of malformed frogs have increased dramatically.
    Malformed frogs have now been reported in 44 states in 38 species of frogs, and
    19 species of toads. Estimates as high as 60% of the newly metamorphosed frog
    populations have had malformations at some ponds (NARCAM, ’99).

    Author: Carol U. Meteyer, USGS National Wildlife Health Center
    Publication: U.S. Geological Survey, 2000

    Hypovitiminosis A in a Captive Collection of Amphibians

    Hypovitiminosis A is a disease of malnutrition or dysnutrition. There have been
    references to this disease for thousands of years and the ancient Egyptians
    treated xerophthalmia (night blindness) with liver from cattle or poultry that
    is rich in vitamin A. Today hypovitaminosis A is routinely diagnosed in humans,
    domestic livestock, and recently with more regularity in captive amphibian

    Author: Gregory J. Fleming, and Eduardo V. Valdes, Disney’s Animal

    Manual For Control of Infectious Diseases in Amphibian Survival Assurance
    Colonies and Reintroduction Programs

    The major contributing factor of the most drastic amphibian population declines
    is the disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium

    This fungus, disseminated worldwide by anthropogenic means, can reduce amphibian
    biodiversity at new locations in alarmingly short periods of time. Thus,
    understanding and controlling infectious diseases such as chytridiomycosis have
    become a major focus of both in
    and ex
    conservation efforts worldwide. Proceedings from a workshop held 16-18 February
    2009, Zoological Society of San Diego. Updated March 2017.

    Author: Pessier, A.P. and J.R. Mendelson (eds.)
    Publication: CBSG March 2017

    Salamanders as Injurious Wildlife – What It Means for Salamander Owners and

    On January 13, 2016, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed 201 species of
    salamander as injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act. The purpose of this
    listing is to protect native salamander populations from Batrachochytrium
    ); a fungus that is lethal to many salamander
    species. This factsheet was developed to answer questions about the rule and
    ensure a basic understanding about what the rule means for salamander owners and

    Author: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
    Publication: 2016

    Treatment of Hypocalcemia (tetany)

    Author: Eric Baitchman
    Publication: EVACC Veterinary Protocols, September 2008

  • Salud – Medicamentos y Tratamientos

    Compendium of Drugs and Compounds Used in Amphibians

    Author: Stephen A. Smith
    Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

    Developing a safe antifungal treatment protocol to eliminate Batrachochytrium
    from amphibians

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
    one of the most pathogenic microorganisms affecting amphibians in both captivity
    and in nature. The establishment of B.
    stable, amphibian captive breeding colonies is one of the emergency measures
    that is being taken to save threatened amphibian species from extinction. For
    this purpose, in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing and the development of
    efficient and safe treatment protocols are required. In this study, we evaluated
    the use of amphotericin B and voriconazole to treat chytridiomycosis in

    Author: A. Martel, P. Van Rooij, G. Vercauteren, K. Baert, L. Van
    Waeyenberghe, P. Debacker, T. W. J. Garner, T. Woeltjes, R. Ducatelle, F.
    Haesebrouck & F. Pasmans
    Publication: Medical Mycology Month 2010, Early Online , 1–7

    Itraconazole treatment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)
    infection in captive caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) and the first case of Bd
    in a wild neotropical caecilian
    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)
    is the causative agent of the disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, one of the
    factors driving amphibian population declines.  infections
    are treatable in at least some cases, but in the Gymnophiona has been little
    reported, and restricted to heat treatment in the form of increased
    environmental temperature. We report the successful treatment of  Bd infection
    in the terrestrial African caecilian  Geotrypetes
    the prophylactic treatment of the aquatic neotropical caecilian Potomotyphlus
    using 30 minute immersions in a 0.01% solution of the antifungal itraconazole
    over a period of 11 days. Previously only recorded in wild African Gymnophiona,
    our report of P. kaupii is
    not only the first record of infection in a wild aquatic caecilian but also in a
    caecilian of neotropical origin. To improve our understanding of the impact of  on
    caecilians, Bd isolates
    should be obtained from wild caecilians in order to ascertain what lineages of Bd infect
    this order. In addition, more wild individuals should be subjected to Bd diagnostic
    surveys, including in Asia where caecilians have not yet been subject to such

    Author: Matthew Rendle, Benjamin Tapley, Matthew Perkins, Gabriela
    Bittencourt-Silva, David J. Gower and Mark Wilkinson
    Publication: Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 3(4) 2015

    Successful treatment of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infections in
    salamanders requires synergy between voriconazole, polymyxin E and temperature

    Chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium
    poses a serious threat to urodelan diversity worldwide. Antimycotic treatment of
    this disease using protocols developed for the related fungus Batrachochytrium
    results in therapeutic failure. Here, we reveal that this therapeutic failure is
    partly due to different minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimycotics
    against Bsal and Bd.
    In vitro growth inhibition of Bsal occurs
    after exposure to voriconazole, polymyxin E, itraconazole and terbinafine but
    not to florfenicol. Synergistic effects between polymyxin E and voriconazole or
    itraconazole significantly decreased the combined MICs necessary to inhibit Bsal growth.
    Topical treatment of infected fire salamanders (Salamandra
    with voriconazole or itraconazole alone (12.5 μg/ml and 0.6 μg/ml respectively)
    or in combination with polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) at an ambient temperature of 15
    °C during 10 days decreased fungal loads but did not clear Bsal infections.
    However, topical treatment of Bsal infected
    animals with a combination of polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) and voriconazole (12.5 μg/ml)
    at an ambient temperature of 20 °C resulted in clearance of Bsal infections.
    This treatment protocol was validated in 12 fire salamanders infected with Bsal during
    a field outbreak and resulted in clearance of infection in all animals.

    Author: M. Blooi, F. Pasmans, L. Rouffaer, F. Haesebrouck, F.
    Vercammen & A. Martel
    Publication: Scientific Reports | 5:11788 | DOI: 10.1038/srep11788

    Successful Treatment of Chytridiomycosis
    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is
    a recently discovered species of chytridiomycete (chytrid) fungus (Longcore et
    al., 1999) that has been isolated from many different amphibian species with
    fatal skin infections (Longcore, 2000). In a study, we experimentally infected
    juvenile D.
    then, once excessive skin shedding had begun, we treated them topically with one
    of three antimicrobial drugs: trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), miconazole, or
    itraconazole (Nichols et al., 2000).

    Author: Donald K. Nichols and Elaine W. Lamirande

  • Salud – Gráficos de Anatomía de Ranas

  • Salud – Hematología

    A field method for sampling blood of male anurans with hypertrophied limbs
    Blood analysis is an essential tool in evaluating the health of amphibians;
    examination and analysis of blood cells provide important information on
    blood-parasite levels (Desser 2001), the status of different organ systems, and
    insights on the status of the immune system (Marnila et al. 1995). Blood samples
    can also be analyzed for genetic, toxicological, and stable isotopes and for
    disease in general or for the presence of specific infectious diseases (Bulté et
    al. 2006). Challenges of amphibian venipuncture include the small sizes of
    specimens with few available venipuncture sites (Heatley and Johnson 2009).
    Non-invasive or minimally invasive sampling methods are preferable when working
    with endangered or declining amphibian species (Pidancier et al. 2003).

    Author: Tapley, B., Acosta-Galvis, A.R., and Lopez, J
    Publication: Phyllomedusa 10(1):75–77, 2011

    Clinical Technique: Amphibian Hematology: A Practitioner’s Guide

    Amphibian hematology is challenging because of a combination of several factors
    including small patient size, few venipuncture sites, lack of normative data,
    and basic variability of the amphibian leukocyte and erythrocyte counts. The
    following brief guidelines are presented in an attempt to guide the clinical
    practitioner as to collection and interpretive techniques, which can easily be
    adapted to clinical practice for these fragile jewels of nature.

    Author: J. Jill Heatley and Mark Johnson, Texas A&M University
    Publication: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Vol 18, No 1 (January),

    Hematology of Lower Vertebrates
    The proper evaluation of the hemogram of any animal patient involves the
    determination of a total erythrocyte count [TRBC], packed cell volume [PCV],
    hemoglobin concentration [Hb], total white blood cell count [TWBC], white blood
    cell differential, and the evaluation of a stained peripheral blood film. The
    basic techniques used in mammalian hematology also apply to that of lower
    vertebrates, such as birds and reptiles. However, because lower vertebrates have
    nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes, there are a few modifications to the

    In: 55th Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP)
    and 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASVCP),
    2004 – Orlando, FL, USA.

    Author: T. W. Campbell
    Publication: American College of Veterinary Pathologists & American
    Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology

  • Salud – Medicina

    Amphibian Medicine
    The following video tutorials are designed to provide a basic background to the
    concepts of amphibian medicine. The material is generally designed for use by
    veterinarians, but the information will be helpful to anyone involved in ex
    amphibian conservation programs. The tutorials are designed as an
    introduction, rather than a complete summary of all topics regarding amphibian
    medicine, and additional resources are listed in each tutorial. Tutorials can be
    viewed as a stand-alone course, but will also be helpful for reviewing concepts
    taught at various amphibian husbandry and medicine workshops given around the
    world by organizations such as the AZA and the Amphibian Ark.

    Author: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

    Anfibios Medicina
    Estos videos didácticos están elaborados para proveer información básica sobre los conceptos de cuidado médico en anfibios. El material está diseñado para ser utilizado por personal veterinario pero la información presentada en ellos puede ser de utilidad para individuos involucrados en el manejo de proyectos
    ex-situ de conservación de anfibios. Estos videos fueron preparados para servir como una introducción a los temas de cuidado médico de anfibios y no como una fuente exhaustiva de información. Recursos y referencias adicionales se encuentran al final de cada video. Estos videos pueden ser utilizados independientemente, pero los conceptos presentados en ellos también pueden servir como material de apoyo en cursos y talleres de manejo y medicina de anfibios que son facilitados alrededor del mundo por organizaciones como la AZA y Amphibian Ark.

    Author: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

    Amphibian Médecine Tutoriels (Français)
    Les tutoriels sur vidéo suivants sont conçus pour fournir un fond de base sur les concepts de la médecine des amphibiens. Le matériel est généralement conçu pour une utilisation par les vétérinaires, mais l’information sera utile à toute personne impliquée dans des programmes de conservation
    ex situ des amphibiens. Les tutoriels se veulent conçus comme une introduction, plutôt qu’un résumé complet de tous les sujets concernant la médecine des amphibiens, et des ressources supplémentaires sont répertoriées dans chaque tutoriel. Ces utoriels peuvent être considérés comme uncours autonome, mais il sera également utile d’examiner les concepts enseignés à différents ateliers de régie et de médecine d’amphibiens donnés dans le monde entier par des organisations telles que l’AZA et l’ Amphibian Ark.

    Author: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

    Medicine and Surgery of Amphibians
    Amphibians are most notably characterized by their glandular skin, which they
    shed regularly and ingest routinely. It is advisable to handle amphibians only
    with protective gloves to avoid damaging their skin. These animals absorb water
    readily across the skin as a means of maintaining hydration. They also easily
    absorb drugs and anesthetics that are applied directly to the skin.
    Investigators commonly utilize cutaneous respiration in amphibians and evaluate
    skin abnormalities via wet mount preparations, skin scrapes, and biopsy. The
    examination of blood samples can be useful in evaluating the status of ill
    amphibians, although the similarity in function of amphibian blood cell types
    and those of other species is largely unknown. If surgery is required, it is
    necessary to fast the animals before surgery, and to monitor their hydration.
    The wet environment required for amphibian surgery makes sterile technique
    challenging, and it is advisable to institute prophylactic antibiotic therapy
    before the procedure. The anesthetic of choice for amphibian surgery is tricaine
    methanesulfonate (MS-222). Postoperative recommendations include fluids,
    nutritional support if necessary, and analgesia. If euthanasia is required,
    MS222 overdose or pentobarbital injection are the preferred methods.

    Author: Edward J. Gentz
    Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

  • Salud – Protocolos

    Amphibian disease precautions: a guide for UK fieldworkers

    Given the alarming situation overseas, organisations involved in UK amphibian
    conservation advise a precautionary but proportionate approach to fieldwork.
    This note sets out simple disease control measures for anyone involved in
    amphibian work. Whilst focusing on chytridiomycosis, these precautions will be
    useful in controlling the spread of other diseases, invasive plants and animals.

    Publication: Version 1: February 2008

    Field-Sampling Protocol for Batrachochytrium dendrobatids From Living
    Amphibians, using Alcohol Preserved Swabs
    Chytridiomycosis, the infectious disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
    (Bd), is responsible for population declines and extinctions of amphibians in many parts of the world. The purpose of this publication is to inform researchers and professionals of a non-lethal methodology for collecting superficial samples from the skin of wild amphibians. These samples are then used to test for the presence of
    Bd using a diagnostic PCR assay, a molecular technique to detect the infection status of an individual.

    Author: Brem, F., Mendelson, JR III, and Lips, KR
    Publication: Version 1.0 (18 July 2007)

    How to remove rubber gloves
    Wearing rubber gloves helps to prevent contamination and the spread of disease.
    It is important to know how to properly remove the rubber gloves to keep
    contaminants sealed inside the gloves and off your hands.

    Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

    How to wear rubber gloves
    Gloves provide a protective barrier against germs that cause infections.

    Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

    Sampling for dead Montserrat Mountain Chickens

    Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

    Survey Protocol for Detecting Chytridiomycosis in all Australian Frog
    Spread of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the decline and extinction of frogs, but the distribution of
    Bd is not completely known. This survey protocol provides a simple and standard method for sampling all frog populations in Australia to maximise the chances of detecting

    Author: Lee F. Skerratt, Lee Berger, Harry B. Hines, Keith R.
    McDonald, Diana Mendez, Richard Speare
    Publication: Dis Aquat Org, Vol. 80: 85–94, 2008

    Survey to assess the distribution of amphibian chytrid fungus in England:
    Surveyor instructions

    Author: Edward G. Brede, Andrew Cunningham and Trent Garner, Institute
    of Zoology

    The Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force Fieldwork Code of Practice

    Author: Begona Arano, Andrew Cunningham, Tom Langton, Jamie Reaser and
    Stan Sessions
    Publication: Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force

    Washing hands
    You should wash your hands before you start the sampling and at the end of the sampling. You do not want to expose other wild populations of amphibians to new pathogens. You also do not want to contaminate the samples with the pathogens of the previous individuals.

    Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

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