Husbandry Documents

Amphibian husbandry documentsThis page includes a wide range of articles and amphibian husbandry documents. You can search for specific words within the title, author and description fields by using the Search field in the menu bar at the top of this page.

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We are currently expanding this page to include a wide range of amphibian husbandry reference documents. If you would like to submit additional documents for this page, please send the article, or a link to the article to AArk staff.

Amphibians in the Classroom or at Home

Considerations and Recommendations for Raising Live Amphibians in Classrooms (English)
The reality of emerging infectious diseases as a primary threat to amphibian populations prompted us to consider carefully some recommendations made by those authors, and also the general notion of reducing disease risks associated with keeping living amphibians in K–12 classrooms—although the same concerns apply to living amphibians in all ex-situ situations (see Pessier 2008; Zippel et al. 2006).
Author: Joseph R. Mendelson III et al.
Publication: Herpetological Review , 2009, 40(2), 142–144

Establishing Frog Habitats on your Property (English)
To re-establish or extend breeding grounds for local frog species on your property, you will need to provide dams that in part contain shallow zones and adequate vegetation cover, with protection from polluted runoff, from predatory fish and if possible from direct access by stock. You will also need to protect creeks from agricultural pollutants, where necessary in conjunction with your neighbours. There are also benefits to frogs and other wildlife if you can link up dams to existing wildlife corridors via vegetation strips, or if you can create corridors along creek lines and ponds.
Author: Merinda Voigt, Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW
Publication: December 1992. Revised April 2006

Keeping frogs in your garden (English)
This leaflet shows you how to establish or modify a garden pond for many of those local frog species that spawn in still or slowly moving water. The pond must be free of predatory fish and of polluting chemicals. It must also have gently sloping sides for the frogs to emerge and vegetation shelter around the pond.
Author: Merinda Voigt, Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW
Publication: December 1992. Latest revision April 2015

Pond building guide (English)
Amphibians live and breed in a wide variety of habitats, so there is not a single pond or wetland design that will satisfy the needs of all amphibian species or amphibians in all localities. A major objective of Operation Frog Pond is to encourage research and experimentation to develop designs and management practices to accommodate a diverse range of amphibian species with different habitat requirements. Guidelines for creating amphibian friendly habitats will be published as new information becomes available. We offer the following guidelines for creating your own amphibian haven.
Author: Tree Walkers International

Document Templates

Template and guidelines for developing a Species Action/Recovery Plan (English)
This template has been developed as a guide to assist authors who are writing an action plan for a single amphibian species. It includes a range of suggested sections and sub-sections, along with a brief definition of what should be included in each section. Each country will likely have different needs, and may decide to exclude some of these sections and/or add additional sections. Please note that this template is quite comprehensive, and possibly includes more information than is necessary for a basic plan. The first version of a species action plan does not need to be as detailed – additional information can be added as the plan develops.
Author: Amphibian Ark
Publication: 1, 2017

Modelo y directrices para el desarrollo de una Plan de Acción / Recuperación de Especies (Spanish)
Este formato se ha desarrollado como una guía para ayudar a los autores que están escribiendo un plan de acción para una especie de anfibio. Incluye una serie de secciones y sub-secciones sugeridas junto con una breve definición de lo que debe incluirse en cada sección. Cada país probablemente tendrá necesidades diferentes y puede decidir excluir algunas de estas secciones y/o agregar secciones adicionales. Ten en cuenta que este formato es bastante completa y posiblemente, incluye más información de la necesaria para un plan básico. La primera versión de un plan de acción de especies no necesita ser tan detallada – se puede agregar información adicional a medida que el plan se desarrolla.
Author: Amphibian Ark
Publication: 1, 2017

Husbandry Guidelines Template (English)
MS Word document template for producing amphibian husbandry guidelines. English version.
Author: AArk / WAZA
Publication: 2015

Canevas des Lignes Diretrices d’Elevage (Français )
MS Word document template for developing amphibian husbandry guidelines. French version.
Author: AArk / WAZA
Publication: 2015

Pautas de Manejo Ex Situ (Spanish)
MS Word document template for producing amphibian husbandry guidelines. Spanish version.
Author: AArk / WAZA
Publication: 2015

Template and guidelines for developing a national amphibian action plan (English)
This template has been developed as a guide to assist authors who are writing a national amphibian action plan. It includes a range of suggested sections and sub-sections, along with a brief definition of what should be included in each section. Each country will likely have different needs, and may decide to exclude some of these sections and/or add additional sections. Please note that this template is very comprehensive, and possibly includes more information than is necessary for a basic plan. The first version of a national action plan does not need to be as detailed – additional information can be added as the plan develops.
Author: Amphibian Ark
Publication: 1, 2017

Formato y lineamientos para el desarrollo de un plan de acción nacional para anfibios
Este formato se ha desarrollado como una guía para ayudar a los autores que están escribiendo un plan de acción nacional para anfibios. Incluye una serie de secciones y sub-secciones sugeridas, junto con una breve definición de lo que debe incluirse en cada sección. Cada país probablemente tendrá necesidades diferentes, y puede decidir excluir algunas de estas secciones y/o agregar secciones adicionales. Ten en cuenta que este formato es muy completo y posiblemente, incluye más información de la necesaria para un plan básico. La primera versión de un plan de acción nacional no necesita ser tan detallada – se puede agregar información adicional a medida que el plan se desarrolla.
Author: Amphibian Ark
Publication: 1, 2017


Building artificial bromeliads (English)
Used as breeding and retreat sites by some species, such as Eleutherodacylus. For some settings, like terraria in low temperature regimes, bromeliads may be hard to keep and take care off. Functional artificial bromeliads can be made as substitutes.
Author: Neftalí Ríos-López
Publication: 2015

Diseño, construcción y manejo de terrarios (Spanish)
Design, construction and management of terrariums. PowerPoint presentation
Author: Diego Almeida Reinoso
Publication: December 2016

Facility Design and Associated Services for the Study of Amphibians (English)
The role of facilities and associated services for amphibians has recently undergone diversification. Amphibians traditionally used as research models adjust well to captivity and thrive with established husbandry techniques. However, it is now necessary to maintain hundreds of novel amphibian species in captive breeding, conservation research, and biomedical research programs.  Good husbandry techniques must include reliable and species-specific management by trained staff members who receive support from the administration. It is possible to improve husbandry techniques for many species by sharing knowledge through common information systems. Overall, good facility design corresponds to the efficient use of space, personnel, energy, materials, and other resources.
Author: Robert K. Browne, R. Andrew Odum, Timothy Herman, and Kevin Zippel
Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

Shipping Containers for Frog and Tadpole Husbandry
This short manual is intended to be used as a guide for the installation and fit-out of disused shipping containers for the purposes of frog and tadpole husbandry. The benefits of using shipping containers are that they are totally self contained, easily portable, well insulated and readily allow for full quarantine, which is essential for frog conservation programs.
Author: P. Harlow, M. McFadden & A. Skidmore, Taronga Zoo
Publication: September 2008 – Version 1.0

Feeding and Nutrition

A Zoo-Wide Evaluation Into the Current Feeder Insect Supplementation Program at the Brookfield Zoo (English)
Commercially raised insects are an important food source for captive animals. For those animals that are purely insectivorous, the nutrient concentrations of the food source are vitally important for the health and welfare of the animal, particularly the Ca to P ratio. In the summer of 2002, a zoo-wide evaluation of the current methods of insect supplementation was conducted at the Brookfield Zoo.
Authors: Roy D. McClements BS,  Barbara A. Lintzenich MS,  and Jennifer Boardman
Publication: AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, 2003

Amphibian calcium metabolism (English)
Calcium is present in amphibian blood at a concentration similar to that in other vertebrates, about 1–2mmol. The fraction of free calcium in amphibians is lower than that in other tetrapod vertebrates because about 50% of the plasma Ca is bound to plasma proteins and perhaps other molecules. There are a number of endocrine and other humoral factors that appear to be involved in amphibian calcium metabolism. These include parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, vitamin D and prolactin.
Author: Daniel F. Stiffler, California State Polytechnic University
Publication: J. Exp. Biol. 184 , 47–61 (1993)

Amphibian diet and nutrition (English)
Amphibians are a very diverse group of vertebrates; however, in general their feeding is opportunistic with food up to gape width being ingested. Amphibians such as frogs and toads only target moving prey and prefer elongated prey such as crickets or insect larvae that move across their field of vision. However, many aquatic amphibians will target food by scent and will consume inert food.
Author: Robert K. Browne, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Belgium
Publication: 2009

Amphibian Nutrition (English)
Course material on amphibian nutrition from the AZA Amphibian Biology, Conservation and Management course.
Author: Allan Pessier, Zoological Society of San Diego
Publication: AZA Amphibian Biology, Conservation and Management Course

Are mixed diets beneficial for the welfare of captive axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum)? Effects of feeding regimes on growth and behavior (English)
Good nutritional husbandry is crucial to maintain high welfare standards in captive animals. Both direct effects of diet on growth, development, and maintenance and indirect effects of feeding regimes on behavior may be important. Despite this, many questions remain as to how we should best feed many of the species that are commonly kept in captivity. In this study, we investigate the impact of mixed versus invariant diets on growth and behavior in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), an aquatic amphibian of severe conservation concern that is frequently maintained in captive collections. We then use our results to provide advice on feeding management in the context of improved welfare. These data suggest that providing a mixed diet is not necessarily beneficial to either growth or welfare of captive animals. In the case of axolotls, an invariant diet of bloodworm should increase growth rates, but the diet (mixed vs. invariant) does not influence behavior. Overall, our results suggest that mixed diets in themselves may not be beneficial to the growth or welfare of axolotls as compared with a high-quality invariant diet.
Authors: Dean J. Slight, Hazel Nichols, and Kevin Arbuckle
Publication: J. Vet. Behav. 10:185–190. 2015

Breeding house flies (English)
House flies can be surprisingly easy and smell-free to culture for a food source.

Carotenoid supplementation enhances reproductive success in captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio) (English)
Amphibians are currently experiencing the most severe declines in biodiversity of any vertebrate, and their requirements for successful reproduction are poorly understood. Here, we show that supplementing the diet of prey items (fruit flies) with carotenoids has strong positive effects on the reproduction of captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio), substantially increasing the number of metamorphs produced by pairs. This improved reproduction most likely arose via increases in the quality of both the fertilized eggs from which tadpoles develop and trophic eggs that are fed to tadpoles by mothers. Frogs in this colony had previously been diagnosed with a Vitamin A deficiency, and this supplementation may have resolved this issue. These results support growing evidence of the importance of carotenoids in vertebrate reproduction and highlight the nuanced ways in which nutrition constrains captive populations.
Authors: Matthew B. Dugas, Justin Yeager, Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki
Publication: Zoo Biology, 30(6), 611–622 (2011) doi: 10.1002/zoo.20358

Comparison of the nutritional content of the captive and wild diets of the critically endangered mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) to improve its captive husbandry (English)
It is vital to provide appropriate nutrition to maintain healthy populations in conservation breeding programs. Knowledge of the wild diet of a species can be used to inform captive diet formulation. The nutritional content of the wild diet of the critically endangered mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) is unknown, like that of most amphibians. In this study, we analyzed the nutritional content of food items that comprise 91% of the wild diet of L. fallax, by dry weight of food items, and all food items offered to captive L. fallax at ZSL London Zoo and Jersey Zoo. We subsequently compared the nutritional content of the wild diet and captive diet at ZSL London Zoo consumed by L. fallax. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to directly compare the nutritional content of the wild and captive diets of an anuran amphibian. The captive diet at ZSL London Zoo, without dusting of nutritional supplements, was higher in gross energy and crude fat and lower in ash, calcium and calcium:phosphorus ratio than the wild diet. Most of the food items in the captive diets had a high omega‐6:omega‐3 fatty acid ratio and in the wild diet had a low omega‐6:omega‐3 fatty acid ratio. We recommend a combination of modifications to the captive diets to better reflect the nutritional content of the wild diet. Nutritional analysis of captive and wild diets is recommended for other species in conservation breeding programs to improve captive husbandry and ultimately fitness.
Authors: Jayson, S., Ferguson, A., Goetz, M., Routh, A., Tapley, B., Harding, L., Michaels, C., & Dawson, J.
Publication: Zoo Biology. 37. 332-346. 10.1002/zoo.21442. 2018

Cricket species vary in gut loading capacity: Implications for delivery of carotenoids to amphibians (English)
There are a very limited number of commercially available invertebrates used as prey items for captive insectivores. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that most feeder invertebrates are of poor nutritional quality. Captive insectivores may therefore be prone to diseases related to nutritional inadequacies. Prey species may be fed on specific nutrients that are required in the insectivore diet. This is termed ‘Gut-loading’, and is often used to improve the quality of feeder invertebrates.
Authors: V. Ogilvy, A.L. Fidgett, D. Sherriff and R.F. Preziosi
Publication: IZW poster, 2009

Development of in-country live food production for amphibian conservation: The Mountain Chicken Frog (Leptodactylus fallax) on Dominica, West Indies (English)
Amphibian populations are in global decline. Conservation breeding programs (CBPs) are a tool used to prevent species extinctions. Ideally, to meet biosecurity, husbandry and other requirements, CBPs should be conducted within the species’ geographic range. A particular issue with in-country amphibian CBPs is that of live food supply. In many areas, such as oceanic islands, commonly cultured food species used by zoos throughout the world cannot be used, as escapes are certain to occur and could lead to the introduction of alien, and potentially highly destructive, invasive species. Here, we describe the establishment of live food cultures for the Critically Endangered Mountain Chicken Frog (Leptodactylus fallax) at a conservation breeding facility on the Caribbean island of Dominica. Not all invertebrate species were suitable for long-term culture and several species were rejected by captive L. fallax, making them unsuitable as food items. Despite the CBP being established within a range state, it was not possible to provide a diet of comparable variety to that of wild L. fallax. Our experiences may provide guidance for the establishment of live food culture systems for other conservation breeding programs elsewhere.
Authors: Daniel J. Nicholson, Benjamin Tapley, Stephanie Jayson, James Dale, Luke Harding, Jenny Spencer, Machel Sulton, Stephen Durand, and Andrew A. Cunningham
Publication: Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 11(2) [General Section]: 59–68 (e149). 2017.

Directions for making fly food (English)
Authors: R. Mancilla, S. Yee, & M. Andres
Publication: 2003

EAZA Management Guideline Manual for Invertebrate Live Food Species (English)
This manual has been designed to assist those concerned with the good management of invertebrate species destined as a captive live food resource, especially, but not exclusively, in zoos and aquaria. These guidelines cover the breeding and rearing methods for twenty three invertebrate species with supplementary information on invertebrate health and nutritional elements.
Author: (Eds) Warren Spencer and Jenny Spencer, Bristol Zoo Gardens
Publication: EAZA 2006

EVACC Nutrition Protocol (English)
Author: Eric Baitchman
Publication: EVACC Veterinary Protocols Sep 2008

Feeding Captive Insectivorous Animals: Nutritional Aspects of Insects as Food (English)
Many captive animals will consume invertebrates, live or dead, but it is often necessary to offer live invertebrates (primarily insects) to a variety of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and small mammals. To successfully manage captive insectivorous species, data on nutritional composition of invertebrate prey are especially important. Since live insects may be the only food offered to some species, nutritional deficiencies can quickly arise if the nutrient levels in the live prey are imbalanced.
Authors: Joni B. Bernard and Mary E. Allen
Publication: AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook (1997)

Leaping forward in amphibian health and nutrition (English)
The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the Disney’s Animal Kingdom Workshop on “Ex situ Amphibian Medicine and Nutrition” identified a critical need to design and implement approaches that will facilitate the assessment and evaluation of factors impacting amphibian health. In this manuscript, we describe and summarize the outcomes of this workshop with regards (a) the identified gaps in knowledge, (b) identified priorities for closing these gaps, and (c) compile a list of actions to address these priorities.
Authors: Francisco Olea-Popelka, Gina M. Ferrie, Cheryl Morris, Allan P. Pessier, Kristine Schad, M. Andrew Stamper, Ron Gagliardo, Elizabeth Koutsos, and Eduardo V. Valdes
Publication: Zoo Biology 9999 : 1 – 6 (2014)

Live Feed Nutritional Supplementation (English)
Adequate nutrition of amphibians ensures:

  • rapid growth and normal development
  • successful reproduction
  • the production of fit and healthy offspring
  • health and low mortality rate
  • adequate calcium metabolism

Authors: Rachael Antwis and Robert K. Browne, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp

Maintenance of Insect Colonies (English)
Author: Susan Barnard, Basically Bats Wildlife Conservation Society
Publication: Bats in Captivity Online, 1995.

Mountain Chicken Live Food Manual (English)
This manual has been produced to provide information on the breeding requirements of live food insects for the Mountain Chicken.
Author: Jimmy Dale
Publication: Revision 2: 24 April 2009

Nutrition and Health in Amphibian Husbandry (English)
Nutritional needs of amphibians are highly integrated with disease and their husbandry needs, and the diversity of developmental stages, natural habitats, and feeding strategies result in many different recommendations for proper care and feeding. This review identifies several areas where there is substantial room for improvement in maintaining healthy ex situ amphibian populations specifically in the areas of obtaining and utilizing natural history data for both amphibians and their dietary items, achieving more appropriate environmental parameters, understanding stress and hormone production, and promoting better physical and population health.
Authors: Gina M. Ferrie et al.
Publication: Zoo Biology 9999 : 1 – 17 (2014)

Nutrition Recommendations for some Captive Amphibian Species (English)
This document provides information on the nutrition of captive amphibians from the Orders Anura (frogs, bullfrogs and toads) and Caudata (newts and salamanders). Species in these Orders have very simple gastrointestinal tracts (GITs), but providing appropriate nutrition to captives can be extremely complex because of ontogenetic dietary shifts and environmental toxicities. Because of this complexity, this document can only address general factors in captive amphibian nutrition.
Author: Deborah A. McWilliams
Publication: 2008

Nutritional Comparisons of Feeder Invertebrates (English)

Nutritional Support of Amphibians (English)
Poor body condition is a common presenting sign in amphibians, and nutritional support of the animal can be critical. Indications and contraindications for assisted feeding in amphibians will be discussed, focusing on adult anurans (e.g., frogs, toads) and urodelans or caudates (e.g., salamanders, newts, sirens). Support can include restoring hydration, syringe feeding a liquid diet, force-feeding prey items to larger amphibians, and encouragement of free feeding. In all cases, the underlying cause—most commonly suboptimal husbandry—should be investigated and corrected.
Authors: Catherine A. Hadfield, Leigh A. Clayton, Sandra L. Barnett, National Aquarium in Baltimore
Publication: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Vol 15, No 4 (October), 2006

Proximate and Mineral Composition of Selected Whole Invertebrates and Nutritional Effects of Different Diets on the Field Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus (English)
In this study the nutritional compositions of the invertebrate species that are cultured on site at the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in Jersey were analysed and the effects of different diets on G. maculatus was compared.
Author: Chris E. Young, Nottingham Trent University
Publication: March 2010

Testing the effect of dietary carotenoids on larval survival, growth and development in the critically endangered southern corroboree frog (English)
The success of captive breeding programs (CBPs) for threatened species is often limited due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional conditions required for optimal growth and survival. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants known to accelerate vertebrate growth and reduce mortality. However, the effect of carotenoids on amphibian life-history traits remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to use a manipulative laboratory experiment to test the effect of dietary-carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage on the survival, growth and development of the critically endangered southern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree). Larvae were fed either a carotenoid supplemented diet or an unsupplemented diet and the survival, growth and development of individuals was monitored and compared. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on larval survival, growth rate, time taken to reach metamorphosis, or body size at metamorphosis. Our findings provide no evidence that carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage improves the growth and development of southern corroboree frogs. However, because the carotenoid dose used in our study did not have any detrimental effects on P. corroboree larvae, but has previously been shown to improve adult coloration, immunity, and exercise performance, carotenoid supplementation should be considered when evaluating the nutritional requirements of P. corroboree in captivity. Carotenoid supplementation studies are now required for a diversity of anuran species to determine the effects of carotenoids on amphibian survival, growth and development. Understanding the effects of dietary carotenoids on different life-history traits may assist with amphibian captive breeding and conservation.
Authors: Byrne, P.G., & Silla, A.J.
Publication: Zoo Biology, 36(2), 161–169. doi: 10.1002/zoo.21352

The art of live food culturing (English)
As the title suggests, live food culturing does take some skill and time to properly master. This monograph is designed to help those who have an interest in raising their own live food cultures by providing information on a variety of food items.
Author: John Chastain, Toledo Zoo
Publication: AZA Amphibian Biology,Conservation and Management Course

The effects of two calcium supplementation regimens on growth and health traits of juvenile mountain chicken frogs (Leptodactylus fallax). (English)
The mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) is among the 42 % of amphibians threatened with extinction and is dependent upon ex situ populations to recover in the wild. Amphibian captive husbandry is not fully understood and empirical data are required to optimise protocols for each species in captivity. Calcium metabolism and homeostasis are areas of importance in captive husbandry research and have been identified as a challenge in maintaining ex situ populations of L. fallax. We trialled two frequencies (twice and seven times weekly) of calcium supplementation via dusting of feeder insects in two groups of L. fallax juveniles and measured growth and health effects through morphometrics, radiography, ultrasonography and blood and faecal analysis over 167 days, followed by a further 230 days of monitoring on an intermediate diet informed by the initial dataset. We showed that supplementation treatment did not affect growth or health status as measured through blood analysis, radiography and ultrasonography. More frequent supplementation resulted in significantly more radiopaque endolymphatic sacs and broader skulls. Frogs fed more calcium excreted twice as much calcium in their faeces. The intermediate diet resulted in previously lower supplementation frogs approximating the higher supplementation frogs in morphometrics and calcium stores. Comparison with radiographic data from wild frogs showed that both treatments may still have had narrower skulls than wild animals, but mismatching age class may limit this comparison. Our data may be used to inform dietary supplementation of captive L. fallax as well as other amphibians.
Authors: Michaels, C., Servini, C., Ferguson, A., Guthrie, A., Jayson, S., Newton-Youens, J., Strike, T., and Tapley, B.
Publication: Herpetological Journal. 31. 18-26. 10.33256/hj31.1.1826 (2021)

The relationship between spindly leg syndrome incidence and water composition, overfeeding, and diet in newly metamorphosed harlequin frogs (Atelopus spp.) (English)
Spindly Leg Syndrome (SLS) is a persistent animal welfare issue associated with the rearing of amphibians in captivity. We conducted two experiments to investigate the effects of diet, water composition and overfeeding on prevalence of SLS in newly metamorphosed harlequin frogs (Atelopus spp.). In our first experiment, we offered 400 full-sibling tadpoles of Atelopus certus isocaloric diets in treatments of 31%, 37%, 42% and 48% crude protein respectively. Tadpoles fed higher protein diets metamorphosed faster, but the incidence of SLS exceeded 80% in all treatments leading to the conclusion that variation in dietary protein was not responsible for causing SLS. We used 720 full-sibling Atelopus glyphus tadpoles in a second experiment to examine the effects of diet type, water composition and diet ration on SLS. We found that an overall incidence of 58% spindly leg in tadpoles reared in tap water, but reduced to about 10% in water treated by reverse osmosis and then reconstituted. It is possible that the reverse osmosis treatment removed some factor that caused the SLS, or that the reconstitution may have added a mineral lacking in the original tap water. Within tap water treatments, overfeeding tadpoles in tanks increased the incidence of SLS. We recommend further experimental research into this condition to identify the causative factors in the water. Additional research into the nutritional composition of food available to wild tadpoles would be useful in formulating captive diets, that have to date been solely based on surrogate species.
Authors: Julio Federico Camperio Ciani, Jorge Guerrel, Eric Baitchman, Rigoberto Diaz, Matthew Evans, Roberto Ibáñez, Heidi Ross, Eric Klaphake, Bradley Nissen, Allan P. Pessier, Michael L. Power, Caitlin Arlotta, Donna Snellgrove, Brad Wilson and Brian Gratwicke
Publication: PLoS ONE 13(10): e0204314. (2018)

General Ex Situ Amphibian Conservation Documents

A process for assessing and prioritizing species conservation needs: going beyond the Red List (English)
Conservation Needs Assessments (CNAs) use current knowledge of species in the wild to determine those with the most pressing conservation needs and provide a foundation for the development of holistic conservation action plans that combine in situ and ex situ actions as appropriate.
Authors: Johnson, K., Baker, A., Buley, K., Carrillo, L., Gibson, R., Gillespie, G., Lacy, R.C., and Zippel, K.
Publication: Oryx. doi:10.1017/S0030605317001715. 2018

Amphibians and conservation breeding programmes: how do we determine who should be on the ark? (English)
Threatened species identified as priorities for ex situ conservation action are not necessarily the best candidates for conservation breeding programmes (CBPs). To facilitate good decision-making regarding which species to establish CBPs for, species suitability should be critically assessed by both an overarching body or expert group that prioritises all threatened species in a country or region for conservation action, and individual institutions. Once a species has been designated as a priority for conservation action and a CBP has been identified as potentially of value (Stage 1 of a comprehensive assessment process), a more thorough assessment of the species’ suitability for such a programme should be undertaken (Stage 2). Individual institutions, instead of simply addressing their capacity to establish a programme in general, should also take a greater role in robust decision making by critically assessing their suitability for a particular species (Stage 3). The Amphibian Ark’s existing Conservation Needs Assessment and Program Implementation Tool serve as Stage 1 and partial Stage 3, respectively, for threatened amphibian species. We have developed Stage 2 (Species Suitability for a CBP Assessment; expected to be available online in 2023) and revised the Program Implementation Tool to take all major relevant considerations into account (available online). This comprehensive process ensures that well-informed, consistent decisions are made regarding whether or not to establish a CBP for a particular species, thereby directing limited resources to programmes with a higher likelihood of success. Given this, potential to modify this process for use with other taxa should be explored.
Authors: Bradfield, K.S., Tapley, B., y Johnson, K.
Publication: Biodiversity and Conservation, 2022.

Amphibian Biology And Husbandry (English)
Author: F. Harvey Pough
Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

Amphibian Conservation Needs Assessments (English)
Conservation Needs Assessments (CNAs) use current knowledge of species in the wild to determine those with the most pressing conservation needs and provide a foundation for the development of holistic conservation action plans that combine in situ and ex situ actions as appropriate.
Authors: Johnson, K. and Carrillo, C.
Publication: WAZA News 1/22, 2022

Amphibian Conservation Resource Manual (English)
This Conservation Resource Manual will help you make informed decisions about how you can most successfully contribute to amphibian conservation, based on your facility’s resources, expertise, and expectations. This Manual shows you both why and how you can get involved. It shares the experience and expertise of your AZA colleagues in developing domestic and international captive rearing programs, in evaluating these programs in terms of conservation goals, and in developing effective and complementary education and research programs. This Manual also steers you to additional resources, including existing husbandry protocols and action plans, funding opportunities, and key contacts.
Author: (Eds) Shelly Grow, Association of Zoos & Aquariums and Vicky A., National Aquarium – Baltimore
Publication: Edition 2.0, 14 September 2007

Amphibian Husbandry Resource Guide (English)
The Association of Zoos and Aquarium (AZA) Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group (ATAG) created the first version of the Amphibian Husbandry Resource Guide in response to the global amphibian crisis as a user-friendly source to aid in the development of successful amphibian conservation programs. Hopefully this second edition of the guide will not only serve as a resource for amphibian husbandry and management, but will help others solve challenges and create additional space for species in need of immediate conservation.
Author: (Eds) Vicky A. , National Aquarium – Baltimore and Shelly Grow, Association of Zoos & Aquariums
Publication: Edition 2.0, 4 April 2012

Amphibian Resources on the Internet (English)
The use of amphibians in classrooms and research laboratories has increased, along with a corresponding increase in the amount of information about these animals on the Internet. This review is intended to aid both novices and experts in the search of such information. The bibliography of Internet resources is organized by discipline and includes general and selected species information, taxonomy, natural history, anatomy and histology, physiology, ontogeny, genetics, conservation, toxicology, medicine and surgery, sources (for animals, housing, and research tools), listservs, databases, associations, educational sources, and husbandry.
Authors: Michael W. Nolan and Stephen A. Smith
Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

Amphibians Used in Research and Teaching (English)
Amphibians have long been utilized in scientific research and in education. Historically, investigators have accumulated a wealth of information on the natural history and biology of amphibians, and this body of information is continually expanding as researchers describe new species and study the behaviors of these animals. Amphibians evolved as models for a variety of developmental and physiological processes, largely due to their unique ability to undergo metamorphosis.
Author: Dorcas P. O’Rourke
Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

Conservation efforts of Kihansi spray toad Nectophrynoides asperginis: its discovery, captive breeding, extinction in the wild and re-introduction (English)
Species conservation depends on the initiatives to restore or retain and sustainably use the environment in which the species live. This paper highlights how development projects can affect biodiversity conservation and the challenges in achieving sustainable development. The paper discusses a case study of the Kihansi Spray Toad (KST) (Nectophrynoides asperginis) from its discovery, extinction in the wild, captive breeding and subsequent reintroduction to its native habitat; focusing on events, challenges, approaches in addressing issues, future prospects and achievements in the conservation of this endemic species. There has been considerable success in KST husbandry in captivity and reintroduction trials of the toad to the wild while concurrently the operations of the hydropower plant and the catchment ecosystem services have continued to provide electricity for domestic & industrial development and support human livelihoods respectively. The paper underscores the importance of interdisciplinary approach in addressing conservation problems and the need for serious commitment of participating parties, but also on the need to balance conservation with sustainable development.
Authors: Cuthbert Nahonyo, Ezekiel Goboro, Wilirk Ngalason, Severinus Mutagwaba, Richard Ugomba, Mohammed Nassoro and Emmanuel Nkombe
Publication: Tanzania Journal of Science, Vol. 43 No. 1 (2017)

Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs (English)
Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.
Authors: Harding, G., Griffiths, R.A., & Pavajeau, L.
Publication: Conservation Biology, 30(2), 340–349. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12612 (2016)

Do amphibian conservation breeding programmes target species of immediate and future conservation concern? (English)
With amphibians declining globally, conservation breeding and reintroduction programmes are increasingly important management tools. Here we examine whether these conservation initiatives are targeting species at the greatest risk of extinction. We compared conservation needs of species involved in conservation breeding programmes to those of their closest relatives not involved in such programmes, using eight variables related to immediate and future extinction risk. We found that species in breeding programmes were more likely to be threatened and were equally range-restricted and specialized as their closest relatives not being bred for conservation purposes. This suggests that in contrast to patterns reported for zoo holdings more generally, these conservation initiatives target species of conservation priority in the short and medium term.
Authors: Alannah Biega and Thomas E. Martin
Publication: Oryx, 52(4), 723-729 (2018)

Ex situ Management of Amphibians (English)
In December 2013, the Central Zoo Authority (CZA) organised a workshop “Building National Capacity for ex situ Amphibians Management and Conservation” in Guwahati, where a list target and practice species of amphibians were identified. During this workshop the Central Zoo Authority with the assistance of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and the Zoological Society of London has strengthened national capacity in amphibian management. More than 80 delegates from all over India representing nearly 40 institutions participated in these workshops. The participants were exposed to the specific requirements of amphibians in the design and management of ex situ facilities. The present guidelines on the ex situ management of amphibians are part of output of Ex situ Management of Amphibians the workshop on “Building National Capacity for ex situ Amphibians Management and Conservation” held at the Assam State Zoo, Guwhati, Assam, India during December, 2013.
Authors: Gupta, B.K., Tapley, B., Vasudevan, K., and Goetz, M.
Publication: 2015

Frogs in Glass Boxes: Responses of Zoos to Global Amphibian Extinctions (English)
To begin the preparations for a global zoo response to safeguard amphibians, the IUCN Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) convened an international meeting to produce initial guidelines and protocols (Zippel, Lacy, and Byers 2006). These guidelines emphasized pathogen biosecurity and development of incountry programs and encouraged the innovative use of commercial shipping containers as affordable, somewhat portable, pod units for housing amphibians in the absence of existing zoo infrastructure. Maintaining extensive proactive survival assurance colonies in captivity as a conservation strategy was included in the IUCN Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (Gascon et al. 2007) and was communicated widely (Mendelson and Rabb 2005; Mendelson et al. 2006; Zippel and Mendelson 2008).
Authors: Mendelson III, J.R.
Publication: In: G. Rabb (Ed.), The ark and beyond: The evolution of zoo and aquarium conservation (pp. 298–310). Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. 2018

Guía para el Manejo de Anfibios en Cautiverio (Spanish)
Esta Guía para el Manejo de Anfibios en Cautiverio le ayudará a proporcionar el mejor cuidado posible para los anfibios a su cargo. Los protocolos exactos para mantener poblaciones de muchas de las especies que requieren de conservación ex situ son desconocidos, pero esta guía ayudará a asegurar que esté utilizando algunas de las mejores técnicas de mantenimiento conocidas, particularmente con el riesgo actual de enfermedades emergentes cuyo arribo en las colecciones debe ser minimizado y cuya emergencia y transporte debe ser manejado.
Author: (Eds) Vicky A. Poole, National Aquarium – Baltimore and Shelly Grow, Association of Zoos & Aquariums
Publication: Edición 1.1, 27 Junio 2008

Improving zoo’s conservation potential through understanding barriers to holding globally threatened amphibians (English)
The global amphibian crisis and current un-mitigatable threats make ex situ programmes a crucial complementary action for the conservation of many amphibians. Zoos and aquariums are some of the most important and influential groups of institutions to undertake this yet the proportion of globally threatened amphibians in zoos is just 23.9% compared to over 40% in the wild. To identify key barriers to holding globally threatened amphibian species in ex situ collections, as well as potential strategies to mitigate such barriers, we surveyed amphibian curators across 107 institutions worldwide. A lack of resources (including budget, staffing and space) was perceived as the most significant barrier (87% of respondents) and the barrier most frequently identified (119 responses), followed by disease/biosecurity concerns (31 responses), and a lack of staff expertise/knowledge (30 responses). Difficulty displaying amphibians due to cryptic behaviour or colouration (65% or respondents) and difficulty attracting visitor interest (60% of respondents) were seen as insignificant barriers. Nine key priority action areas were identified, with increasing interest from zoo leadership and budget allocation identified as the most important (49% of suggested solutions). Increasing visitor interest in amphibians to encourage increased investment and engaging with range country facilities were highlighted as two ways to address barriers. Careful collection planning considering both the need and suitability of a species for captive breeding is also key, whilst critically assessing the role each species will play in a collection will enable a better assessment of the collection’s conservation value rather than using global threat status alone.
Authors: Leana Brady, Richard P. Young, Matthias Goetz, and Jeff Dawson
Publication: Biodiversity and Conservation, June 2017

Inventory and Monitoring Techniques for Amphibians of the Tropical Andean Region (Spanish)
This manual collects the experience of several researchers who have dedicated a good part of their professional lives to the development of monitoring techniques and to the arduous task of testing them for long periods to see their benefits in the results generated. Similarly, these experiences have been put into practice in the three field courses on amphibian inventory and monitoring developed by the Atelopus Initiative for Conservation International and the Darwin Initiative in Peru, Venezuela and Bolivia. The final result of this purification process is the product that is presented today to the academic community and in general to all those interested in amphibians. Likewise, this manual represents a small but strategic part of the global effort to face declines and extinctions as mentioned in the Amphibian Conservation Plan (ACAP), a document developed during the Amphibian Conservation Summit that met in Washington D.C. in September 2005, and which is the guide for amphibian conservation actions to be implemented, at a global level, during the coming years. We hope that by promoting research with initiatives like this, we can increase our knowledge.
Editors: Angulo, A., Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Rodríguez-Mahecha, J.V., and la Marca, E.
Publication: Conservación Internacional. Serie Manuales de Campo Nº 2. 2006

Marking techniques – What options are there? (English)
Identification techniques for individual amphibians. (PowerPoint presentation hand outs).
Author: Gerardo Garcia, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Publication: 2009

Online Conservation Needs Assessments (English)
Amphibian Ark is very excited to announce the launch of our online Amphibian Conservation Needs Assessment program at Since 2007, AArk staff and our partners have worked with our colleagues from the IUCN Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG), the international ex situ amphibian conservation community and other stakeholders to evaluate the conservation needs of 3,490 amphibian species. With the move to an online format, we are now able to continue these assessments in a more inclusive environment, with assessments for multiple countries being undertaken at the same time.
Author: Johnson, K.
Publication: FrogLog 23 (3) Number 115, 2015

Recent Studies in Reptile and Amphibian Welfare: Some Relevant Publications for the Zoo Herpetologist (English)
Animal welfare has become a major driving force behind the operations and management of accredited zoos and aquariums, with institutions across the globe committed to structured approaches to assessing and managing the wellbeing of animals in their care (Mellor et al. 2015). Although much of the focus on animal welfare in zoological parks historically has centered on just a handful of taxa, particularly high-profile mammalian species such as elephants, primates, large carnivores and cetaceans (e.g., Goulart et al. 2009; Melfi 2009; Maple and Perdue 2013), other taxonomic groups including reptiles and amphibians have received increased attention and resources aligned with their welfare in recent years. Today, animal welfare programs factor heavily into the captive management of reptiles and amphibians at many zoological parks, incorporating enrichment and behavioral husbandry initiatives and periodic welfare assessments that seek to optimize the wellbeing of captives and promote more evidence-based approaches to their care. Our collective understanding of reptile and amphibian welfare has advanced considerably over the past three decades, and now encompasses many different fields of inquiry including, but not limited to ecology, ethology, cognition and learning, physiology, captive husbandry, and veterinary medicine. Laying the essential groundwork for the body of research that has focused on reptile and amphibian welfare to date, Warwick, Frye, and Murphy’s Health and Welfare of Captive Reptiles (Warwick et al. 1995) was the first major work to tackle the subject of welfare in captive reptiles. Covering many important topics including physiology and functional anatomy (Lillywhite and Gatten).
Author: Mendyk, Robert
Publication: Herpetological Review. 53. 176-180. 2022

The Art of Amphibian Science (English)
The contributions of amphibians to our understanding of ourselves and our world dates back to the very beginning of science. From the resurgence of science in the Renaissance to the modern science of today, the ability to study amphibians has greatly facilitated our understanding of physiology and basic cellular processes.
Authors: Stephen A. Smith and Michael K. Stoskopf
Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

The importance of enrichment for advancing amphibian welfare and conservation goals: A review of a neglected topic (English)
Enrichment, broadly the provision of stimuli to improve the welfare of captive animals, is known to be important in husbandry practice and in the success of ex situ conservation and reintroduction programs. Practical evidence of the importance of enrichment exists for a number of taxa, yet amphibians are poorly represented. There is no reason to assume a priori that amphibians would not benefit from enrichment and, given their increasing prominence in captive programs, their requirements in captivity beyond basic husbandry should be the focus of more intense study. We review the existing body of research on enrichment for amphibians, as well as that for fish and reptiles, which may be regarded as behaviorally and neurologically broadly similar to amphibians. We also briefly discuss mechanisms by which enrichment might affect amphibian fitness and, therefore, reintroduction success. Our review supports the contention that there may be important consequences of enrichment for both captive welfare and ex situ conservation success in amphibians and that amphibian enrichment effects may be highly variable taxonomically. In the face of increasing numbers of captive amphibian species and the importance of ex situ populations in ensuring their species level persistence, enrichment for amphibians may be an increasingly important research area.
Authors: Christopher J. Michaels, J. Roger Downie, and Roisin Campbell-Palmer
Publication: Amphib. Reptile Conserv. 8(1) :7–23. (2014)

The importance of natural history and species-specific approaches in amphibian ex-situ conservation (English)
Due to the importance of ex situ components of the response to the on-going amphibian extinction crisis, the numbers of captive amphibian species and populations is growing. However, ex situ projects are currently often poorly supported by knowledge of the captive husbandry requirements of individual amphibian species, many of which are being taken into captivity for the first time. Natural history data and measurements of wild environmental parameters are critical in designing appropriate captive environments, but are absent for the majority of species held in captivity. This has resulted in the failure of some ex situ projects and is likely to affect many future initiatives. Publication biases away from natural history and amphibian-specific research, the inaccessibility of data in academic literature for conservation institutions and lack of time for preparative surveys before ‘rescue’ attempts are largely responsible for this data deficit. In many cases, conservation groups must collect their own data where existing information is insufficient. We suggest important parameters to record in the field and discuss the importance of considering the microclimates in which wild amphibians live when determining the methodology of recording parameters. Furthermore, we highlight the important role that public databases should fulfil to store and disseminate data. All in all, this perspective piece demonstrates the need for natural history data and outlines a road map for their efficient collection and for their practical integration into conservation programmes.
Authors: Michaels, Christopher J., Gini, Beatrice F. & Preziosi, Richard F.
Publication: Herpetol. J. 24:135–145. (2014)

The principles of rapid response for amphibian conservation, using the programmes in Panama as an example (English)
As a direct response to many threats facing seriously threatened amphibian species, including habitat loss, pollution and, more recently, emerging infectious disease, ex situ captive-breeding programs have proven valuable tools in species preservation. Looking at three specific projects, it can be demonstrated that collaborative efforts and multiple-response methods yield positive results in amphibian conservation and species preservation. At the same time, the lessons learned will be examined in each of these projects to allow for future amphibian conservation programs to consider.
Authors: R. Gagliardo, P. Crump, E. Griffith, J. Mendelson, H. Ross & K. Zippel
Publication: Int. Zoo Yb. (2008) 42: 125–135

The use of visible implant elastomer to permanently identify caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) (English)
Identifying individual animals is important for studying populations and for the optimal management of individual animals in captivity. In the absence of natural markings that discriminate individuals, such identification may require animals to be marked by researchers. Amphibians are challenging subjects to mark due to their small size and sensitive, permeable and frequently shed skin. Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) has been widely used to mark amphibians, but no long-term study has validated this technique in caecilian amphibians. We anaesthetised and attempted to VIE mark seven Herpele squalostoma and one Microcaecilia unicolor held at ZSL London Zoo. No specimens suffered ill effects of anaesthesia or VIE injection, but mean persistence of marks was 191 days in H. squalostoma suggesting that this marking technique is not suitable for identifying individuals of this species in the long-term. We were unable to inject VIE into the M. unicolor and/or the elastomer was not visible through the darkly pigmented skin. Further research is required to develop methods for long-term marking of a diversity of caecilians.
Authors: Tapley, B., Michaels, C.J., Gower, D.J., & Wilkinson, M.
Publication: Herpetological Bulletin, 150, 18–22. doi: 10.33256/hb150.1822 2020

Health - Biosecurity and Quarantine

A guide to husbandry and biosecurity standards required for the safe and responsible management of ex situ populations of amphibians (English)
Ex situ
 breeding of selected amphibian species is recognised as an essential and integral part of the IUCN Amphibian Conservation Action Plan to stem the loss of amphibian species worldwide. However, the emergence of the infectious disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) as a significant factor in the recent decline and extinction of many amphibian species, raises specific challenges for ex situ conservation. Increasing awareness of biosecurity issues and introducing a quarantine-like approach to amphibian husbandry of enclosures/rooms within an institution and between institutions will significantly reduce the risk of an epidemic outbreak of chytridiomycosis (or other disease) in captivity.

These standards are based upon those reported in the proceedings of the CBSG/WAZA Amphibian Ex situ Conservation Planning Workshop, El Valle, Panama, 12-15th February 2006.
Publication: 2008

Amphibian quarantine protocols: Melbourne Zoo (English)
Quarantine protocols for Melbourne Zoo’s amphibians have been in operation for many years and are designed to reduce the risk of introducing pathogens to the collection, the spread of pathogens within the collection and the release of pathogens from the facility into receiving collections or free-ranging populations. This report will document existing protocols and provide additional information about diagnostic techniques, disinfection and therapeutic agents that relate to the containment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (fungus causing the disease chytridiomycosis) and other pathogens. It is intended as an information source for both veterinary and keeping staff.

In: Speare R and Steering Committee of Getting the Jump on Amphibian Disease. Developing management strategies to control amphibian diseases: Decreasing the risks due to communicable diseases. School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University: Townsville. 2001: 157-161.
Author: Michael Lynch, Melbourne Zoo
Publication: November 2000

AZA amphibian quarantine guidelines (English)
All the classifications and recommendations below were created to form a baseline of information for amphibian management decisions within AZA facilities. The recommendations represent the optimal quality of care that might not be financially or physically possible given a facility’s particular limitations. Therefore this document should not be construed as being mandated policy, but a set of suggestions that can improve amphibian care and conservation programs within participating institutions. The document can also be used to ensure the highest recommended standards possible (such as waste water treatment and solid waste disposal) are incorporated into plans for new amphibian facilities.
Author: Shannon T. Ferrell, Fort Worth Zoo

Biosecurity and Permanent Isolation of Ex Situ Conservation Populations (English)
Implementation of biosecurity practices that reduce the potential for introduction of amphibian infectious diseases to new locations are the responsibility of all institutions that maintain or move captive amphibians. In addition, good biosecurity practices help to reduce the risk posed by infectious diseases on the success and sustainability of captive amphibian programs. This is an extract from the Manual For Control of Infectious Diseases in Amphibian Survival Assurance Colonies and Reintroduction Programs.
Author: Pessier, A.P. and J.R. Mendelson (eds.)
Publication: CBSG March 2017

Amphibian monitoring in Latin America – A protocol manual
Author: Karen R. Lips, Jaime K. Reaser, Bruce E. Young and Roberto Ibanez
Publication: SSAR Herpecological Circular No. 30

Developing management strategies to control amphibian diseases: Decreasing the risks due to communicable diseases (English)
This document fulfils the scope items for a contract between Environment Australia and Rick Speare of James Cook University to run a Conference / Workshop to develop management strategies to lessen the risk of communicable diseases to wild amphibians. The focus of this document is on formidable infectious diseases of wild amphibians. These are diseases with the potential to cause high levels of illness and death in wild populations. Two diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, were identified as being formidable diseases based on their pathogenicity and potential to cause epidemic deaths. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, was identified as the disease of greatest threat to wild amphibians. This document is a valuable resource to assist us in developing and implementing strategies to manage communicable diseases capable of putting at risk populations of amphibians in the wild.
Author: Rick Speare, James Cook University
Publication: Report to Environment Australia, January 2001

Developing New Amphibian Quarantine Standards and Prerelease  Protocols (English)
In February 2006, the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) and World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) held an Amphibian Ex-Situ Conservation Planning Workshop in Panama. During this workshop, recommendations where made to upgrade housing and quarantine standards currently in place at zoological institutions. These recommendations were initially criticized by many as being too impractical or extreme for AZA institutions to follow due to lack of resources and funding. However, given the global spread of chytrid fungus and the potential for new pathogens to do the same, the Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group is strongly encouraging institutions (especially those holding species designated for reintroduction) to modify their current husbandry and quarantine standards to comply with the new recommendations.
Author: Dr. Ryan De Voe, Senior Veterinarian, North Carolina Zoological Park and Jessi Krebs, Supervisor, Reptiles and Amphibians, Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo
Publication: AZA Connect, February 2007

Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Herpetology Department Quarantine Service Order and Protocols (English)
Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Publication: February 12, 2018

Guidelines for minimising disease risks associated with captive breeding, raising and restocking programs for Australian frogs (English)
The guidelines are intended for use nationally by conservation agencies, zoos, scientific research staff, industry organisations (e.g., the pet industry), students, frog keepers, wildlife rescue and carer groups, frog interest groups/societies and other key interest groups who regularly deal with or are likely to engage in captive breeding, raising and restocking programs for Australian frogs.
Author: Murray, K., Skerratt, L., Marantelli, G., Berger, L., Hunter, D., Mahony, M. and Hines, H.
Publication: June 2001

Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs (English)
This information circular outlines measures to:

  • Prevent or reduce disease causing pathogens being transferred within and between wild populations of frogs.
  • Ensure captive frogs are not infected prior to release.
  • Deal safely with unintentionally transported frogs.
  • Assist with the proper identification and management of sick and dead frogs in the wild

Author: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Publication: August 2001

Información básica sobre como reducir el riesgo de transmisión de agentes infecciosos entre ejemplares de anfibios y entre diferentes lugares
Objetivos de este documento: Dar a conocer el problema de las enfermedades emergentes de anfibios a los gestores del medio natural, y aportar sugerencias para evitar la transmisión de estos patógenos entre animales, y entre diferentes localidades.
Author: Jaime Bosch, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

Health - Chytrid Fungus

Amphibian chytridiomycosis: strategies for captive management and conservation (English)
Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian species have occurred worldwide over the last three decades owing to the introduction of chytridiomycosis. This emerging infectious disease is caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a virulent water-borne pathogen of many amphibian species. Zoological institutions can play a key role in preventing pathogen spread between captive facilities, and in disease surveillance, captive-breeding and reintroduction programmes, to limit the impact of this formidable disease on wild amphibian populations.
Author: S. Young, L. Berger and R. Speare, James Cook University
Publication: Int. Zoo Yb. (2007) 41: 85–95

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and treatment in the salamanders Ambystoma andersoni, A. dumerilii and A. mexicanum (English)
In order to better understand the impacts and treatment of infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) it is important to document host species, the effect of infection and response to treatment protocols. Here we report asymptomatic Bd infection detected through duplex qPCR screening of three Mexican ambystomatid salamanders; Ambystoma andersoni, Ambystoma dumerilii and Ambystoma mexicanum at three zoo collections, and A. andersoni and A. mexicanum in a private collection. Bsal was tested for but not detected. We also report the effectiveness and side effects of five treatment protocols in these species. Using the antifungal agent itraconazole, A. dumerilii were cleared of infection without side-effects using the granulated preparation (Sporanox). Morbidity and mortality occurred when A. dumerilii and A. andersoni were treated using a liquid oral preparation of the itraconazole (Itrafungol); infection was successfully cleared in surviving specimens of the latter species. Ambystoma mexicanum was successfully cleared without any side-effects using Itrafungol. Mortality and morbidity were likely caused by toxic effects of some component on the liquid preparation of itraconazole, but aspects of water quality and husbandry cannot be ruled out.
Authors: Christopher J. Michaels, Matthew Rendle, Cathy Gibault, Javier Lopez, Gerardo Garcia, Matthew W. Perkins, Suzetta Cameron & Benjamin Tapley
Publication: Herpetological Journal Volume 28 (April 2018), 87-92

Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)
This leaflet can be used to recognize Bsal in the amphibian host. Important: the symptoms are variable and can be difficult to detect at an early infection stage. It is often that lesions become evident at a relatively late stage of infection with
February 2018

Developing a safe antifungal treatment protocol to eliminate Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from amphibians (English)
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidisis one of the most pathogenic microorganisms affecting amphibians in both captivity and in nature. The establishment of B. dendrobatidis free, stable, amphibian captive breeding colonies is one of the emergency measures that is being taken to save threatened amphibian species from extinction. For this purpose, in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing and the development of efficient and safe treatment protocols are required. In this study, we evaluated the use of amphotericin B and voriconazole to treat chytridiomycosis in amphibians.
Author: A. Martel, P. Van Rooij, G. Vercauteren, K. Baert, L. Van Waeyenberghe, P. Debacker, T. W. J. Garner, T. Woeltjes, R. Ducatelle, F. Haesebrouck & F. Pasmans
Publication: Medical Mycology Month 2010, Early Online , 1–7

Itraconazole treatment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection in captive caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) and the first case of Bd in a wild neotropical caecilian (English)
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the causative agent of the disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, one of the factors driving amphibian population declines.  infections are treatable in at least some cases, but in the Gymnophiona has been little reported, and restricted to heat treatment in the form of increased environmental temperature. We report the successful treatment of  Bd infection in the terrestrial African caecilian  Geotrypetes seraphini and the prophylactic treatment of the aquatic neotropical caecilian Potomotyphlus kaupii, using 30 minute immersions in a 0.01% solution of the antifungal itraconazole over a period of 11 days. Previously only recorded in wild African Gymnophiona, our report of P. kaupii is not only the first record of infection in a wild aquatic caecilian but also in a caecilian of neotropical origin. To improve our understanding of the impact of Bdon caecilians, Bd isolates should be obtained from wild caecilians in order to ascertain what lineages of Bd infect this order. In addition, more wild individuals should be subjected to Bd diagnostic surveys, including in Asia where caecilians have not yet been subject to such surveys.
Author: Matthew Rendle, Benjamin Tapley, Matthew Perkins, Gabriela Bittencourt-Silva, David J. Gower and Mark Wilkinson
Publication: Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 3(4) 2015

Main preventative management strategies for the Chytrid fungus (English)

Reducing disease risks in captive amphibians and protecting our wild native amphibians from invasive disease (English)
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (B.sal) is a newly-discovered species of chytrid fungus that can infect and kill a wide range of newts and salamanders. This fungus has become established in a few wild amphibian populations in parts of Europe where it is causing devastating population declines. It is thought to be spread internationally by the amphibian trade and unless all concerned (pet traders, scientists and amphibian keepers) take great care and apply some simple biosecurity measures, there is a risk that it could be introduced to captive and wild amphibian populations elsewhere in Europe. B.sal has already been found in captive newts and salamanders in the UK.
Author: BIAZA
Publication: June 2015

Successful Treatment of Chytridiomycosis (English)
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently discovered species of chytridiomycete (chytrid) fungus (Longcore et al., 1999) that has been isolated from many different amphibian species with fatal skin infections (Longcore, 2000). In a study, we experimentally infected juvenile D. tinctorius and then, once excessive skin shedding had begun, we treated them topically with one of three antimicrobial drugs: trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), miconazole, or itraconazole (Nichols et al., 2000).
Author: Donald K. Nichols and Elaine W. Lamirande

Survival of Bd in Water: Quarantine and Disease Control Implications (English)
Amphibian chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians thought to be moved between countries by trade in infected amphibians. The causative fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, produces aquatic, motile zoospores; infections have been achieved in experiments by exposing amphibians to water containing zoospores. However, the ability of this fungus to survive in the environment in the absence of an amphibian host is unknown. We show that B. dendrobatidis will survive in tap water and in deionized water for 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. In lake water, infectivity was observed for 7 weeks after introduction. The knowledge that water can remain infective for up to 7 weeks is important for the formulation of disease control and quarantine strategies for the management of water that has been in contact with amphibians.
Author: Megan L. Johnson and Richard Speare
Publication: Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 9, No. 8, August 2003

Health - Diseases

5-minute Guide to Amphibian Disease (English)
The amphibian patient is often presented late in the disease process, and the presenting signs are commonly limited to anorexia, weight loss and/or fluid retention. A review of the husbandry and feeding history should be part of any workup. Diagnostic information may be obtained in a manner similar to that used with other vertebrates, although the small size of many patients limits the quantity and usefulness of diagnostic samples.
Author: Mads Bertelsen and Graham Crawshaw, Toronto Zoo
Publication: Exotic DVM vol 5.2 May 2003

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual – Chytridiomycosis (English)
Fact sheet on the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of chytridiomycosis.
Author: Cynthia Stadler
Publication: May 2013

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual – Ranavirus (English)
Fact sheet on the diagnosis, prevention and control of ranavirus in amphibians.
Author: Ann E. Duncan
Publication: August 2013

De-worming amphibians (English)
Author: Will Brown and Renee Lizotte

Disease Treatment and Control (English)
Among the most important infectious disease issues identified in amphibian survival assurance populations are chytridiomycosis, infection, and infection with the rhabditiform nematodes. The goals of the medical treatment and other disease control measures described in this chapter are to:

  • Mitigate the effects of infectious diseases
  • Reduce the risk that captive amphibian populations could serve as sources of population limiting infectious diseases
  • Identify methods that can be used to create specific pathogen free amphibian populations.

Author: Eric Baitchman

Diseases of Amphibians (English)
The development and refinement of amphibian medicine comprise an ongoing science that reflects the unique life history of these animals and our growing knowledge of amphibian diseases. Amphibians are notoriously fastidious in terms of captive care requirements, and the majority of diseases of amphibians maintained in captivity will relate directly or indirectly to husbandry and management.
Author: Christine L. Densmore and David Earl Green
Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

Field Guide to Malformations of Frogs and Toads (English)
In 1995, students found numerous malformed frogs on a field trip to a Minnesota pond. Since that time, reports of malformed frogs have increased dramatically. Malformed frogs have now been reported in 44 states in 38 species of frogs, and 19 species of toads. Estimates as high as 60% of the newly metamorphosed frog populations have had malformations at some ponds (NARCAM, ’99).
Author: Carol U. Meteyer, USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Publication: U.S. Geological Survey, 2000

Hypovitiminosis A in a Captive Collection of Amphibians (English)
Hypovitiminosis A is a disease of malnutrition or dysnutrition. There have been references to this disease for thousands of years and the ancient Egyptians treated xerophthalmia (night blindness) with liver from cattle or poultry that is rich in vitamin A. Today hypovitaminosis A is routinely diagnosed in humans, domestic livestock, and recently with more regularity in captive amphibian species.
Author: Gregory J. Fleming, and Eduardo V. Valdes, Disney’s Animal Programs

Manual For Control of Infectious Diseases in Amphibian Survival Assurance Colonies and Reintroduction Programs (English)
The major contributing factor of the most drastic amphibian population declines is the disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus, disseminated worldwide by anthropogenic means, can reduce amphibian biodiversity at new locations in alarmingly short periods of time. Thus, understanding and controlling infectious diseases such as chytridiomycosis have become a major focus of both in situ and ex situ amphibian conservation efforts worldwide. Proceedings from a workshop held 16-18 February 2009, Zoological Society of San Diego. Updated March 2017.
Author: Pessier, A.P. and J.R. Mendelson (eds.)
Publication: CBSG March 2017

Manual para el control de enfermedades infecciosas en colonias de resguardo para anfibios y programas de reintroducción
El principal factor contribuyente de la drástica disminución de la población anfibia es la enfermedad quitridiomicosis causada por el hongo quítrido anfibio, específicamente Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis y Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Este hongo, diseminado por medios antropogénicos, puede reducir la biodiversidad anfibia en nuevos lugares en períodos de tiempo alarmantes, por lo tanto, entender y controlar enfermedades infecciosas tales como la quitridiomicosis se ha vuelto el enfoque principal de los esfuerzos conservacionistas de los anfibios tanto in situ como ex situ a nivel global. Actas de un taller realizado entre el 16 Y 18 de febrero del 2009 en la Zoological Society de San Diego, EE.UU. Actualizada marzo 2017.
Author: Pessier, A.P. and J.R. Mendelson (eds.)
Publication: Versión 2, CBSG March 2017

Salamanders as Injurious Wildlife – What It Means for Salamander Owners and Scientists (English)
On January 13, 2016, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed 201 species of salamander as injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act. The purpose of this listing is to protect native salamander populations from Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans); a fungus that is lethal to many salamander species. This factsheet was developed to answer questions about the rule and ensure a basic understanding about what the rule means for salamander owners and scientists.
Author: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Publication: 2016

Spindly leg syndrome in Atelopus varius is linked to environmental calcium and phosphate availability (English)
Spindly leg syndrome (SLS) is a relatively common musculoskeletal abnormality associated with captive-rearing of amphibians with aquatic larvae. We conducted an experiment to investigate the role of environmental calcium and phosphate in causing SLS in tadpoles. Our 600-tadpole experiment used a fully-factorial design, rearing Atelopus varius tadpoles in water with either high (80mg/l CaCO3), medium (50mg/l CaCO3), or low calcium hardness (20mg/l CaCO3), each was combined with high (1.74 mg/l PO4) or low (0.36 mg/l PO4) phosphate levels. We found that calcium supplementation significantly improved tadpole survival from 19% to 49% and that low calcium treatments had 60% SLS that was reduced to about 15% at the medium and high calcium treatments. Phosphate supplementation significantly reduced SLS prevalence in low calcium treatments. This experimental research clearly links SLS to the calcium: phosphate homeostatic system, but we were unable to completely eliminate the issue, suggesting an interactive role of other unidentified factors.
Author: Lassiter E, Garcés O, Higgins K, Baitchman E, Evans M, Guerrel J, et al.
Publication: PLoS ONE 15(6): e0235285. 2020

Treatment of Hypocalcemia (tetany) (English)
Author: Eric Baitchman
Publication: EVACC Veterinary Protocols, September 2008

Health - Drugs and Treatment

Compendium of Drugs and Compounds Used in Amphibians
Author: Stephen A. Smith
Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

Successful treatment of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infections in salamanders requires synergy between voriconazole, polymyxin E and temperature (English)
Chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) poses a serious threat to urodelan diversity worldwide. Antimycotic treatment of this disease using protocols developed for the related fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), results in therapeutic failure. Here, we reveal that this therapeutic failure is partly due to different minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimycotics against Bsal and Bd. In vitro growth inhibition of Bsal occurs after exposure to voriconazole, polymyxin E, itraconazole and terbinafine but not to florfenicol. Synergistic effects between polymyxin E and voriconazole or itraconazole significantly decreased the combined MICs necessary to inhibit Bsal growth. Topical treatment of infected fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra), with voriconazole or itraconazole alone (12.5 μg/ml and 0.6 μg/ml respectively) or in combination with polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) at an ambient temperature of 15 °C during 10 days decreased fungal loads but did not clear Bsal infections. However, topical treatment of Bsal infected animals with a combination of polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) and voriconazole (12.5 μg/ml) at an ambient temperature of 20 °C resulted in clearance of Bsal infections. This treatment protocol was validated in 12 fire salamanders infected with Bsal during a field outbreak and resulted in clearance of infection in all animals.
Author: M. Blooi, F. Pasmans, L. Rouffaer, F. Haesebrouck, F. Vercammen & A. Martel
Publication: Scientific Reports | 5:11788 | DOI: 10.1038/srep11788

Frog Anatomy Charts
Health - Haematology

A field method for sampling blood of male anurans with hypertrophied limbs (English)
Blood analysis is an essential tool in evaluating the health of amphibians; examination and analysis of blood cells provide important information on blood-parasite levels (Desser 2001), the status of different organ systems, and insights on the status of the immune system (Marnila et al. 1995). Blood samples can also be analyzed for genetic, toxicological, and stable isotopes and for disease in general or for the presence of specific infectious diseases (Bulté et al. 2006). Challenges of amphibian venipuncture include the small sizes of specimens with few available venipuncture sites (Heatley and Johnson 2009). Non-invasive or minimally invasive sampling methods are preferable when working with endangered or declining amphibian species (Pidancier et al. 2003).
Author: Tapley, B., Acosta-Galvis, A.R., and Lopez, J
Publication: Phyllomedusa 10(1):75–77, 2011

Clinical Technique: Amphibian Hematology: A Practitioner’s Guide (English)
Amphibian hematology is challenging because of a combination of several factors including small patient size, few venipuncture sites, lack of normative data, and basic variability of the amphibian leukocyte and erythrocyte counts. The following brief guidelines are presented in an attempt to guide the clinical practitioner as to collection and interpretive techniques, which can easily be adapted to clinical practice for these fragile jewels of nature.
Author: J. Jill Heatley and Mark Johnson, Texas A&M University
Publication: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Vol 18, No 1 (January), 2009:

Hematology of Lower Vertebrates (English)
The proper evaluation of the hemogram of any animal patient involves the determination of a total erythrocyte count [TRBC], packed cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], total white blood cell count [TWBC], white blood cell differential, and the evaluation of a stained peripheral blood film. The basic techniques used in mammalian hematology also apply to that of lower vertebrates, such as birds and reptiles. However, because lower vertebrates have nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes, there are a few modifications to the techniques.

In: 55th Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP) and 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASVCP), 2004 – Orlando, FL, USA.
Author: T. W. Campbell
Publication: American College of Veterinary Pathologists & American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology

Health - Medicine

Amphibian Medicine Tutorials (English)
The following video tutorials are designed to provide a basic background to the concepts of amphibian medicine. The material is generally designed for use by veterinarians, but the information will be helpful to anyone involved in ex situ amphibian conservation programs. The tutorials are designed as an introduction, rather than a complete summary of all topics regarding amphibian medicine, and additional resources are listed in each tutorial. Tutorials can be viewed as a stand-alone course, but will also be helpful for reviewing concepts taught at various amphibian husbandry and medicine workshops given around the world by organizations such as the AZA and the Amphibian Ark.
Author: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

Anfibios Medicina Tutoriales (Spanish)
Estos videos didácticos están elaborados para proveer información básica sobre los conceptos de cuidado médico en anfibios. El material está diseñado para ser utilizado por personal veterinario pero la información presentada en ellos puede ser de utilidad para individuos involucrados en el manejo de proyectos ex-situ de conservación de anfibios. Estos videos fueron preparados para servir como una introducción a los temas de cuidado médico de anfibios y no como una fuente exhaustiva de información. Recursos y referencias adicionales se encuentran al final de cada video. Estos videos pueden ser utilizados independientemente, pero los conceptos presentados en ellos también pueden servir como material de apoyo en cursos y talleres de manejo y medicina de anfibios que son facilitados alrededor del mundo por organizaciones como la AZA y Amphibian Ark.
Author: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

Amphibian Médecine Tutoriels (Français)
Les tutoriels sur vidéo suivants sont conçus pour fournir un fond de base sur les concepts de la médecine des amphibiens. Le matériel est généralement conçu pour une utilisation par les vétérinaires, mais l’information sera utile à toute personne impliquée dans des programmes de conservation ex situ des amphibiens. Les tutoriels se veulent conçus comme une introduction, plutôt qu’un résumé complet de tous les sujets concernant la médecine des amphibiens, et des ressources supplémentaires sont répertoriées dans chaque tutoriel. Ces utoriels peuvent être considérés comme uncours autonome, mais il sera également utile d’examiner les concepts enseignés à différents ateliers de régie et de médecine d’amphibiens donnés dans le monde entier par des organisations telles que l’AZA et l’ Amphibian Ark.
Author: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

Medicine and Surgery of Amphibians (English)
Amphibians are most notably characterized by their glandular skin, which they shed regularly and ingest routinely. It is advisable to handle amphibians only with protective gloves to avoid damaging their skin. These animals absorb water readily across the skin as a means of maintaining hydration. They also easily absorb drugs and anesthetics that are applied directly to the skin. Investigators commonly utilize cutaneous respiration in amphibians and evaluate skin abnormalities via wet mount preparations, skin scrapes, and biopsy. The examination of blood samples can be useful in evaluating the status of ill amphibians, although the similarity in function of amphibian blood cell types and those of other species is largely unknown. If surgery is required, it is necessary to fast the animals before surgery, and to monitor their hydration. The wet environment required for amphibian surgery makes sterile technique challenging, and it is advisable to institute prophylactic antibiotic therapy before the procedure. The anesthetic of choice for amphibian surgery is tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222). Postoperative recommendations include fluids, nutritional support if necessary, and analgesia. If euthanasia is required, MS222 overdose or pentobarbital injection are the preferred methods.
Author: Edward J. Gentz
Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

Health - Protocols

Amphibian disease precautions: a guide for UK fieldworkers (English)
Given the alarming situation overseas, organisations involved in UK amphibian conservation advise a precautionary but proportionate approach to fieldwork. This note sets out simple disease control measures for anyone involved in amphibian work. Whilst focusing on chytridiomycosis, these precautions will be useful in controlling the spread of other diseases, invasive plants and animals.
Version 1: February 2008

Disinfection protocol fieldwork (English)
This document provides simple but effective measures that can help limit the spread of fungi and viruses pathogenic to amphibians in disease free areas. The advice listed below only encompasses “standard” field research methods. In case of reintroductions, translocation of animals, etc. stricter hygienic requirements are in order.
February 2018

Disinfection protocol heavy machinery (English)
This document provides simple, but effective measures in order to minimize the spill over of infectious amphibian pathogens to disease free areas. The advice listed below is meant for heavy machinery that is used for work in and around water bodies like ponds, canals and streams that are home to amphibians. This includes (for example) tractors, excavators, loaders, mowers, harvesters, dredgers, etc. For ecological fieldwork we refer to our disinfection protocol fieldwork.
February 2018

Field-Sampling Protocol for Batrachochytrium dendrobatids From Living Amphibians, using Alcohol Preserved Swabs (English)
Chytridiomycosis, the infectious disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis(Bd), is responsible for population declines and extinctions of amphibians in many parts of the world. The purpose of this publication is to inform researchers and professionals of a non-lethal methodology for collecting superficial samples from the skin of wild amphibians. These samples are then used to test for the presence of Bd using a diagnostic PCR assay, a molecular technique to detect the infection status of an individual.
Authors: Brem, F., Mendelson, JR III, and Lips, KR
Publication: Version 1.0 (18 July 2007)

How to remove rubber gloves (English)
Wearing rubber gloves helps to prevent contamination and the spread of disease. It is important to know how to properly remove the rubber gloves to keep contaminants sealed inside the gloves and off your hands.
Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

How to wear rubber gloves (English)
Gloves provide a protective barrier against germs that cause infections.
Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

Sampling for dead Montserrat Mountain Chickens (English)
Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

Survey Protocol for Detecting Chytridiomycosis in all Australian Frog Populations (English)
Spread of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the decline and extinction of frogs, but the distribution of Bd is not completely known. This survey protocol provides a simple and standard method for sampling all frog populations in Australia to maximise the chances of detecting Bd.
Authors: Lee F. Skerratt, Lee Berger, Harry B. Hines, Keith R. McDonald, Diana Mendez, Richard Speare
Publication: Dis Aquat Org, Vol. 80: 85–94, 2008

Survey to assess the distribution of amphibian chytrid fungus in England: Surveyor instructions (English)
Author: Edward G. Brede, Andrew Cunningham and Trent Garner, Institute of Zoology

The Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force Fieldwork Code of Practice (English)
Authors: Begona Arano, Andrew Cunningham, Tom Langton, Jamie Reaser and Stan Sessions
Publication: Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force

Washing hands (English)
You should wash your hands before you start the sampling and at the end of the sampling. You do not want to expose other wild populations of amphibians to new pathogens. You also do not want to contaminate the samples with the pathogens of the previous individuals.
Author: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

Light and UV

A Comparison of Responses by Three Broadband Radiometers to Different Ultraviolet-B Sources (English)
Three types of broadband ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiometers were shown to display different irradiances from the same light source. Also, natural light and different lamp types were shown to have different vitamin D–synthesizing potential. Equations relating the irradiance readings from UVB radiometers from Gigahertz-Optik Inc., UVP Inc., and Spectronics Corp. to in vitro vitamin D–synthesizing potential are reported for four UVB sources.
Authors: W.H. Gehrmann, J.D. Horner, G.W. Ferguson, T.C. Chen and M.F. Holick
Publication: Zoo Biology 23:355–363 (2004)

A Comparison of Vitamin D-Synthesizing Ability of Different Light Sources to Irradiances Measured with a Solarmeter Model 6.2 UVB Meter (English)
Recognition of nutritional metabolic bone disease (= nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism) in herpetological collections in recent years decades has led to an interest in measuring ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-315 nm) in natural light and in vivaria illuminated with artificial lamps.
Authors: W.H. Gehrmann, D. Jamieson, G.W. Ferguson, J.D. Horner, T.C. Chen and M.F. Holick
Publication: Herpetological Review, 2004, 35(4), 361-364

How much UV-B does my reptile need? The UV-Tool, a guide to the selection of UV lighting for reptiles and amphibians in captivity (English)
Guidance is almost non-existent as to suitable levels of UV lighting for reptiles and amphibians, or how to achieve satisfactory UV gradients using artificial lighting. The UV-Tool is a working document that seeks to address this problem, by considering the range of UV experienced by each species in the wild. The UV-Tool contains an editable and expanding database of the microhabitat requirements and basking behaviour of reptile and amphibian species, as derived from field studies, or inferred from observed behaviour in captivity. Since an animal’s UV-B exposure is determined by its behaviour within its native microhabitat, estimation of its natural range of daily UV-B exposure is then possible. The current version of the UV-Tool assigns 254 species to each of four ‘zones’ of UV-B exposure (Ferguson zones) based upon UV-index measurements. Once the likely UV requirement of any species of reptile or amphibian is ascertained, the next step is to plan safe but effective UV gradients within the captive environment. To do this requires knowledge of the UV spectrum and output of the lamps to be used. The UV-Tool therefore includes test reports and UV-index gradient maps for commercially available UV-B lighting products, and a guide to selection of appropriate lamps for use in vivaria and in larger zoo enclosures. There are reports on 24 different products in the current version of the UV-Tool. This document has been compiled by members of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquaria (BIAZA) Reptile and Amphibian Working Group (RAWG) with contributions from zookeepers and herpetologists from the UK and abroad. Further input is welcome and encouraged.
Authors: Frances Baines, Joe Chattell, James Dale, Dan Garrick, Iri Gill, Matt Goetz, Tim Skelton and Matt Swatman
Publication: Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 4(1) 2016

Larval amphibians seek warm temperatures and do not avoid harmful UVB radiation (English)
Habitat use by animals often reflects the balance between conflicting demands such as foraging and avoiding predation. Environmental stressors such as temperature can also affect habitat use in many organisms, particularly in ectothermic animals. For example, warm, shallow thermal regimes in ponds can optimize growth and developmental rate of amphibian larvae but may also expose larvae to potentially harmful levels of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Thus, optimally, amphibians seeking sunlight for thermoregulation must balance this behavior while limiting their exposure to harmful UVB radiation. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to test the hypothesis that larval amphibians avoid UVB by selecting microhabitats with lower exposure to UVB.
Authors: Betsy A. Bancroft, Nick J. Baker, Catherine L. Searle, Tiffany S. Garcia and Andrew R. Blaustein
Publication: Behavioral Ecology Advance Access publication 21 April 2008

Meeting Ultraviolet B Radiation Requirements of Amphibians in Captivity: A Case Study With Mountain Chicken Frogs (Leptodactylus fallax) and General Recommendations for Pre-Release Health Screening (English)
Conservation breeding programmes are a tool used to prevent amphibian extinctions. The husbandry requirements of amphibians are complex. Ongoing research is needed to ensure optimal management of those captive-bred animals destined, in particular, for reintroduction. The UV-B and vitamin D3 requirements of amphibians are largely unknown. Metabolic bone disease has been reported in a number of species. We demonstrate here that, through the appropriate provision of a combination of both V-B radiation and dietary supplementation, L. fallax can be bred and reared in captivity with healthy skeletal development.
Authors: Tapley, B., Rendle, M, Baines, F.M., Goetz, M, Bradfield, K.S., Rood, D., Lopez, J., Garcia, G., and Routh, A.
Publication: Zoo Biology 9999 : 1–7 (2014)

Rays and mild climate deadly for frogs (English)
A Brisbane scientist has discovered that even small doses of ultra violet radiation during mild temperatures can be fatal for frogs.
Story printed on: May 26, 2006, 5:07 pm.

Story from UQ NEWS ONLINE: UQ News Online, May 2006

The lunar cycle: a cue for amphibian reproductive phenology? (English)
Lunar cycles give rise to cues that can be recognized by animals, including changes in light intensity, geomagnetism and gravity. Many environmental variables affect reproductive timing in amphibians and we tested the hypothesis that lunar cycles provide one of the cues for amphibian breeding phenology.
Authors: Rachel A. Grant, Elizabeth A. Chadwick, Tim Halliday
Publication: Animal Behaviour, (2009)

UV-B, Vitamin D3, and amphibian health and behaviour (English)
This document provides a short summary of the biological issues concerning studies of Vitamin D3 and UV-B metabolism in amphibians. We also present some simple experimental designs.
Authors: Robert Browne, Francis Vercammen, Elfi Verschooren and Rachael E. Antwis
Publication: AArk Science and Research portal

UV-lamps for Terrariums: Thier Spectral Characteristics and Efficiency in Promoting Vitamin D3 Synthesis by UVB Irradiation (English)
Sufficient irradiation within a narrow sub-band of the UVB range is a prerequisite for the photosynthesis of vitamin D3 in skin. Although radiation below wavelength of 300 nm (nanometres) promotes photosynthesis of vitamin D3, radiation above 300 nm destroys vitamin D3 that has been already synthesised in skin tissue or nutritionally obtained. In the study, the characteristics of light produced by fourteen different models of UV and full spectrum lamps specifically designed for terrarium use were measured over a range of 250–800 nm.
Author: Jukka Lindgren
Publication: Herpetomania 13 3-4/2004

UVB to Calcium cycle (English)

Vitamin D and Ultraviolet Radiation: Meeting Lighting Needs for Captive Animals (English)
Most animals meet their vitamin D needs through diet or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, rickets and osteomalacia, classic consequences of calcium and vitamin D deficiency, are problems in a number of captive species, including certain basking reptiles and nursing primates, when little or no access is provided to natural sunlight. Artificial light is commonly used to promote the health of animals housed indoors. However, to be effective and safe, the lamps used must emit radiant energy of appropriate UV wavelengths and intensity.
Author: Joni B. Bernard
Publication: AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook (1997)

National Amphibian Action Plans

A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar (English)
The Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar (ACSAM) represents an effort to implement the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan at a regional scale and promises to serve as a model for similar initiatives across the globe. The effort is both timely and critically important, being in a top priority region. Madagascar boasts more than 235 described amphibian species, over 99% of which are endemic, and at least as many more await description. As a country it consistently falls in the top dozen in the world for total number of amphibian species (12th), number of threatened species (11th) and number of endemics (4 th). With the new species currently awaiting description, these figures will likely increase dramatically in the near future.
Author: Franco Andreone (Editor)
Publication: Ver 1, 2008

Action Program for the Conservation of Species: Ambystoma spp. (Spanish)
The genus Ambystoma is made up of 33 described species, which are distributed in North America from southwest Alaska and southern Canada to the Mexican Highlands (Pough et al., 2001). In the particular case of Mexico there are 17 species distributed in the northeast and center of the country; of these, 16 are endemic, which represents more than 85% of the total Ambystoma species that inhabit Mexico (Parra-Olea et al., 2014). Of the 16 endemic species, 15 are listed in some risk category; three are classified as threatened (A) and the remaining twelve as subject to special protection (Pr). For all the above, it is of great importance to have interference in decision-making and the implementation of resources for the conservation of these species. PACE Ambystoma spp. It is an instrument that, linked to the Protected Natural Areas of the country, is beneficial to ensure the permanence of these species in Mexican ecosystems as part of the natural balance of the environment.
Author: Secretaria De Medio Ambiente Y Recursos Naturales
Publication: 2018

Amphibian Conservation of Chile (Spanish)
Chile has a rather small batrachofauna when compared to other South American countries, however it is characterized by its high degree of endemism, with various shapes and sizes that have evolved independently and with species adapted to living in quite unequal environments. from the arid north, the heights of the Andes, passing through the Mediterranean area, reaching the temperate and cold forests of southern Chile. In recent years there has been an explosive increase in amphibian research in our country, and thus new problems have also arisen for their conservation. The continuous increase in the invasion of the African frog, the recent description of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis that causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, the description of new species and the application of new techniques in genetic studies, are just some examples of new challenges of the amphibian conservation in Chile.

The organization of the amphibian Conservation workshop for public organizations, held at the Andrés Bello University on July 7 and 8, 2011, sought to be a platform for information and discussion on these issues with those in charge of their protection, management and conservation. We hope that this book is a contribution to the knowledge and protection of bio-diversity.
Author: Claudio Soto-Azat y Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez (editors)
Publication: Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello, Santiago, Chile, 2012

ARAZPA (ZAA) Amphibian Action Plan (English)
This document is a strategic plan of action for ARAZPA institutions to respond to the current conservation crisis facing amphibians. Its intent is to provide direction for zoological institutions to increase their capacity in amphibian ex situ management in ways that maximise their ability to support amphibian conservation priorities. This Plan has been prepared in consultation with the ARAZPA Reptile & Amphibian TAG, external regional and global expertise in ex situ amphibian management, and the broader amphibian conservation and research community.
Author: Compiled by Graeme Gillespie, Russel Traher and Chris Banks, Zoos Victoria
Publication: June 2007

ASG Captive Breeding Working Group Action Plan (English)
The vision, goals and actions for captive amphibian conservation programs, generated by the ASG Captive Breeding Working. This document updates and replaces the Captive Breeding chapter of the 2007 Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP).
Author: ASG Captive Breeding Working Group
Publication: June 2016

Association of Zoos and Aquariums Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group regional collection plan,
4th edn.
Since the completion of the first edition of the RCP in August 2000, much of the ATAG’s direction has changed due to increased awareness about the extent and causes behind rapid amphibian population declines and the role zoos and aquariums can aid in this crisis by developing assurance colonies of at-risk species within a global framework. Current data indicate that the general trend of amphibian extinctions is accelerating at an unprecedented rate and future catastrophic losses are inevitable. Within this context, the ATAG’s RCP reflects a more tightly defined scope for suggested amphibian programs in AZA institutions that will enable colleagues to utilize their resources to their fullest potential and respond in chorus with the rest of the global amphibian community.
Author: Barber D., Marcec-Greaves, R. and Poole, V. (eds)
Publication: Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Maryland, 2020

China Herpetological Conservation Action Plan: Amphibians (English)
In 2005, the World Conservation Union Species Survival Commission (IUCN SSC) set up the Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG) and ASG-China Region to target amphibian conservation. In 2008, the conference for the China Amphibian Conservation Action Plan was held with the support of Conservation International. Following this conference, in August 2010, a follow up meeting held in Guilin, brought together committee members and herpetologists. It was here that the China Amphibian Conservation Action Plan was initiated and formulated.
Author: LI Pi-peng, Shenyang Normal University
Publication: December 2010

Conservation Action Plan for the Amphibians of Argentina (English)
The Conservation Action Plan for the Amphibians of Argentina proposes goals and actions that are considered priority to cover the existing information gaps and face the current and future threats to the conservation of amphibians in our country. It aims to provide clear guidance on issues that are considered relevant to conservation by identifying and ordering a set of measurable goals and the respective actions that respond to specific recommendations grouped in the thematic lines proposed and that can be implemented in the short, medium and long term (1, 3 and 5 years).
Author: Marcos Vaira, Mauricio S. Akmentins and Esteban O. Lavilla (editors)
Publication: August 2018

Ensuring a future for South Africa’s frogs: a strategy for conservation research (English)
This document prioritises research on threatened species in South Africa so that scarce resources can be most effectively utilised to understand and reduce threats to the amazing frog diversity found in the country. The first chapter provides a general introduction on global and local amphibian decline, with the remaining chapters covering research priorities for taxonomy, conservation, monitoring and public awareness. Lastly, an appendix provides an update of the Red List with IUCN criteria for all threatened South African amphibians. Despite the large number of frog species in South Africa, and the small number of amphibian biologists, every species was evaluated (no ‘Data Deficient’ species remain). Now we are left with the challenge to preserve amphibian biodiversity, and herein lies the strategy that will pave the way for the next five years of conservation research.
Author: G.J. Measey (editor)
Publication: SANBI Biodiversity Series 19, 2011

Estrategia para la Conservación de Anfibios Críticamente Amenazados en Chiapas, México
(Strategy for the Conservation of Critically Endangered Amphibians in Chiapas, Mexico)
Chiapas, al igual que México, destaca por su elevada riqueza de anfibios, producto de la variedad de condiciones biogeográficas y geológicas que se presentan en su territorio. Del total de anfibios registrados para el país, en el estado de Chiapas el grupo de los anfibios está representado por tres órdenes, 12 familias, 33 géneros y 108 especies. De dicho número, 81 especies corresponden al orden Anura, 25 al Caudata y 2 al Gymnophiona (modificado de Luna-Reyes et al., 2005). Las familias con más géneros corresponden a Hylidae (15) y Plethodontidae (6), mientras que las que incluyen un mayor número de especies son Hylidae (32), Plethodontidae (25), Craugastoridae (24) y Bufonidae (11).
Author: Luna-Reyes, R., A et al.
Publication: Febrero de 2010

Estrategia para la Conservación de los Anfibios en Mesoamérica
(Strategy for the Conservation of Mesoamerican Amphibians)
Costa Rica es un país en el cual las poblaciones de anfibios y las posibles causas que están produciendo su declinación continuamente están siendo estudiadas. Dos evaluaciones sobre el estado de conservación de los anfibios fueron hechos en 2002, cuando las 180 especies descritas en ese entonces para Costa Rica fueron evaluadas en un Taller para la Evaluación del Estado de Conservación y Plan de Manejo (CAMP), Y posteriormente en ese año, se dieron las discusiones para la porción de Costa Rica del Análisis Global de Anfibios (GAA), donde se revisó completamente el estado de las poblaciones de los Anfibios en Centroamérica. Después de estos análisis de conservación, varias organizaciones e instituciones de Costa Rica trabajaron una Estrategia Nacional para la Conservación de los Anfibios en el 2006. Esta estrategia estableció que las acciones de conservación para este grupo deberían hacerse en tres áreas principales: conservación
ex situ, conservación in situ y entrenamiento y educación.
Author: Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Rodríguez, J.E. y Matamoros, Y. (Eds.)
Publication: 2014

Ex situ Management of Amphibians in India (English)
India has about 390 species and more than 70% of them are endemic to the region. Indian Zoos could play a pivotal role in the conservation management of the countries threatened amphibians. In addition zoos are ideally placed to educate the visiting the public about amphibians and the threats that they face. Currently amphibians are underrepresented in Indian Zoos and only one species (i.e. Salamander Tylototriton verrucosus) maintained by one institution, Padmaja NaiduHimalayan Zoological Park in Darjeeling. The Central Zoo Authority recognises the need to increase capacity in amphibian zoos. Over the years CZA has paved way for prioritisation of species and preparation of a plan for coordinated conservation breeding for Indian amphibians. With ecology and biology of many amphibians in India remains unknown, it is potentially difficult to keep, establish and breed Indian amphibians. We strongly urge young biologists and zoo professionals to gather information through targeted studies on species in the field before embarking on captive breeding programmes. The present guidelines on the ex situ management of amphibians are part of output of
the workshop on “Building National Capacity for ex-situ Amphibians Management and Conservation” held at the Assam State Zoo, Guwhati, Assam, India during December, 2013.
Author: Brij Kishor Gupta, Benjamin Tapley, Karthikeyan Vasudevan and Matt Goetz
Publication: 2015

Plan de Acción para la Conservación de Anfibios en Panamá
(Action Plan for the Conservation of Amphibians in Panama)
En esta oportunidad la Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente, a través de la Dirección de Áreas Protegidas y Vida Silvestre, acatando lo estipulado en la Resolución AG-0467-2009, se complace en presentar el Plan de Acción para la Conservación de Anfibios en Panamá. El mismo es el resultado del trabajo conjunto y de forma coordinada entre la ANAM, entidad autónoma rectora del Estado en materia de recursos naturales y las organizaciones dedicadas a la investigación y conservación de los anfibios. La formulación de este plan constituye la primera de una serie de acciones a implementarse con la finalidad de hacerle frente a la alarmante declinación de los anfibios en el territorio nacional. El mismo integra actividades específicas de investigación, conservación y educación, a corto y mediano plazo; por tal razón instamos a los grupos de interés y comunidad en general, a participar en el desarrollo de esta iniciativa, con la determinación de salvaguardar nuestro patrimonio natural.
Author: Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente
Publication: 2011

Plan de acción para la conservación de los anfibios amenazados de Bolivia
(Action plan for the conservation of threatened amphibians of Bolivia)
El Plan Nacional para la Conservación de los anfibios amenazados de Bolivia, aglutina las gestiones, acciones y emprendimientos que instituciones, científicos y el estado nacional deben desarrollar a favor de la conservación de estas especies emblemáticas en el próximo lustro, y que han sido identificados por los mismos actores mencionados. En conjunto los anfibios constituyen el 28% del total de los vertebrados amenazados del país, lo que lo ubica como el grupo más amenazado de Bolivia y que ahora será objeto de acciones concretas para asegurar su supervivencia en el mediano y largo plazo, y con esto también determinar la conservación de los hábitats donde se desarrollan.
Author: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua
Publication: 2012

Plan de Acción para la Conservación de los Anfibios de la República Argentina
Este Plan tiene como objetivo general proporcionar una orientación clara sobre temas que se consideran pertinentes en materia de conservación, identificando y ordenando un conjunto de metas mensurables y las acciones respectivas que respondan a recomendaciones específicas agrupadas en las líneas temáticas propuestas y que puedan ejecutarse en el corto, mediano y largo plazo (1, 3 y 5 años).
Author: Marcos Vaira, Mauricio S. Akmentins and Esteban O. Lavilla (editors)
Publication: August 2018

Plan de Acción para la Conservación de los Anfibios Amenazados del Departamento de la Guajira, Colombia
(Action Plan for the Conservation of Threatened Amphibians of the Department of La Guajira, Colombia)
El Plan de Acción para la Conservación de los Anfibios Amenazados de la Guajira (PACAAGUA) contemplara tres componentes principales: El primero tiene que ver con todos estudios de investigación necesarios para conservar las especies de anfibios amenazados del departamento. El segundo es el componente social, en el cual identificará los principales actores sociales que pueden ayudar a ejecutar el PACCAGUA y el tercer componente cons iderara las acciones conservacionistas que los actores sociales pueden llevar acabo apoyados con el componente investigativo. Se espera que el PACAAGUA, como primer plan regional de conservación de Anfibios en Colombia, sea un referente de las acciones y estrategias que promuevan la conservación de los Anfibios amenazados y que se articule a un futuro plan nacional de conservación de los anfibios.
Author: Bio. Luis Alberto Rueda Solano

Plan de Acción para la Conservación de los Anfibios del Departamento del Valle del Cauca
(Action Plan for the Conservation of Amphibians of the Department of Valle del Cauca)
El objetivo de este texto es dar a conocer las necesidades de investigación para la conservación de los anfibios del Valle del Cauca y servir como herramienta que oriente los esfuerzos y permita planear futuras investigaciones al respecto. Además, el documento debe ser revisado periódicamente con el fin de reconocer los avances y evaluar su vigencia de acuerdo con la realidad cambiante. Finalmente, esperamos que el Plan de Acción aquí contenido sirva como incentivo a corporaciones autónomas, institutos de investigación, universidades e investigadores que deseen contribuir al conocimiento y la conservación de este maravilloso grupo animal que son los anfibios.
Author: Germán Corredor Londoño et al.
Publication: 2010

Action Plan for the Conservation of Urban Amphibians of Cuenca (Spanish)
The city of Cuenca maintains within its green areas important ecological niches that house species of amphibians endemic to Ecuador. The scant scientific information on aspects of the natural history of some of these species, as well as the accelerated urban growth, has implemented initiatives from the public and private sectors and international cooperation with the aim of protecting species of amphibians threatened with extinction, this being pioneering project in the conservation of wild fauna in urban areas and mainly with long-term objectives and views.

Objectives: Analyze the state of conservation of the amphibian populations that inhabit the urban area of Cuenca, through a systematic gathering of information on distribution, ecological requirements and main threats.
Author: Fausto Siavichay P., Gabriela Maldonado C., Danilo Mejía Coronel, Juan Fernando Webster, Nohemí Torres and Katterine Costa

Publication: 2016

Summary Conservation Action Plans for Mongolian Reptiles and Amphibians (English)
The reptiles and amphibians of Mongolia were recently assessed using the ‘IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria’ (IUCN, 2001) in conjunction with the ‘Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Levels’ (IUCN, 2003). The assessments were carried out during the Second International Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop from the 11th to 15th September 2006. During the assessment process, groups of participants formulated summary conservation action plans for both threatened and Data Deficient species, outlining recommended conservation measures that could be implemented to help arrest population declines or learn more about their conservation status. Following the workshop, these documents were extensively reviewed by participants and other experts who were unable to attend the workshop.
Author: Compiled by Terbish, Kh., Munkhbayar, Kh., Clark, E.L., Munkhbat, J. and Monks, E.M.
Publication: 2006

Urban Amphibians of Cuenca (Spanish)
This manual deals with the amphibians that still inhabit the urban spaces of Cuenca and those that are no longer found in the region due to various factors such as pollution, loss of habitat, introduction of harmful species and other causes. The
manual is constituted as a guide for the population to know the amphibian species that with some frequency can be found in patios and parks, such as: cutins, marsupial frogs and possibly some Andean poison frogs, as well as well as to identify those that are
threatened with extinction, such as
toads, and species introduced in the region, such as the American bullfrog. It also allows to know the degree of threat in which some of these species are found and the reason for their extinction.
It contains information on the places where these frogs were observed and actions for their preservation, in such a way that the amphibians continue forming part of the urban environment of Cuenca.
Author: Fausto Siavichay Pesántez, Gabriela Maldonado Cedeño and Danilo Mejía Coronel
Publication: Autonomous Municipal Decentralized Government of Cuenca Canton Environmental Management Commission, 2016

Population Management

Amphibian Ark Amphibian Population Management Guidelines (English)
Created at an Amphibian Ark amphibian population management workshop held on 10-11 December 2007 at San Diego Zoo, San Diego, California, USA sponsored by the Amphibian Ark. Updated January 2018 with Appendix C: Applying Molecular Genetics to Captive Amphibian Populations.
Author: Amphibian Ark, Schad, K (ed)
Publication: December 2007

AArk Founder Calculation Tool (English)
Amphibian Ark has developed a tool to help calculate the number of founders that should be collected, based on the reproductive biology of the species being considered.
Author: Amphibian Ark

Amphibian Population Management Tools (English)

Herramienta de Cálculo de Fundadores de AArk
Arca de los Anfibios ha desarrollado una herramienta para ayudar a calcular el número de fundadores que deben recopilarse, basado en la biología reproductiva de la especie considerada.
Author: Amphibian Ark

Lineamientos para el Manejo de Poblaciones de Anfibios AArk (Spanish)
Creado en un taller de manejo de poblaciones de anfibios celebrado del 10 al 11 de diciembre de 2007 en el Zoológico de San Diego, San Diego, California, EE.UU., patrocinado por el Arca de los Anfibios. Actualizado en enero de 2018 con Apéndice C: Aplicando Genética Molecular a Poblaciones de Anfibios en Cautiverio.
Author: Amphibian Ark, Schad, K (ed)
Publication: December 2007

Methods to Individually Identify the Amphibian Specimen (English)
The quality of management of animals is greatly enhanced when specimens can be identified as individuals. Without this ability to consistently identify each specimen it becomes impossible to maintain medical histories, pedigree data, and other pertinent information that is directly related to the specimen. Inability to identify individuals will also impact gene diversity maintained in a captive population (see section on Genetic Management).
Author: R. Andrew Odum and Edythe Sonntag
Publication: 2010

Program Development

Amphibian Data Entry Guidelines (English)
Amphibian life history characteristics can make data entry challenging. Large clutch sizes and an assortment of life stages can generate data entry inconsistencies within and among institutions and studbooks. As many institutions currently hold amphibians, it is becoming clearer that these data can be recorded in a multitude of ways. The following guidelines will clarify amphibian data entry for both institutional registrars and studbook keepers.

Issued by: Amphibian Ark, AZA Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group, AZA Institutional Data Management Advisory Group, AZA Population Management Center.

Amphibians and conservation breeding programmes: do all threatened amphibians belong on the ark? (English)
Amphibians are facing an extinction crisis, and conservation breeding programmes are a tool used to prevent imminent species extinctions. Compared to mammals and birds, amphibians are considered ideal candidates for these programmes due to their small body size and low space requirements, high fecundity, applicability of reproductive technologies, short generation time, lack of parental care, hard wired behaviour, low maintenance requirements, relative cost effectiveness of such programmes, the success of several amphibian conservation breeding programmes and because captive husbandry capacity exists. Superficially, these reasons appear sound and conservation breeding has improved the conservation status of several amphibian species, however it is impossible to make generalisations about the biology or geo-political context of an entire class. Many threatened amphibian species fail to meet criteria that are commonly cited as reasons why amphibians are suitable for conservation breeding programmes. There are also limitations associated with maintaining populations of amphibians in the zoo and private sectors, and these could potentially undermine the success of conservation breeding programmes and reintroductions. We recommend that species that have been assessed as high priorities for ex situ conservation action are subsequently individually reassessed to determine their suitability for inclusion in conservation breeding programmes. The limitations and risks of maintaining ex situ populations of amphibians need to be considered from the outset and, where possible, mitigated. This should improve programme success rates and ensure that the limited funds dedicated to ex situ amphibian conservation are allocated to projects which have the greatest chance of success.
Author: Benjamin Tapley, Kay S. Bradfield, Christopher Michaels and Mike Bungard
Publication: Biodivers Conserv DOI 10.1007/s10531-015-0966-9

CBSG/WAZA Amphibian Ex Situ Conservation Planning Workshop Final Report (English)
From 12-15 February 2006, CBSG and WAZA hosted an Amphibian Ex Situ Conservation Planning Workshop in El Valle, Panama. Unlike the prior meeting in DC, this group called upon only those amphibian biologists with expertise in the issues surrounding captive maintenance of amphibians. Fifty such people from 14 countries representing every amphibian-inhabited continent divided into four working groups to develop strategies for Organization of the ex situ community, Best Practices for husbandry and quarantine, developing objective criteria for Species Selection, and conceptually organizing Rapid Response Programs. The Working Group Reports compiled into this single document represent the ex situ community’s plan to address the ex situ conservation components of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan.
Editors: Zippel, K., R. Lacy, and O. Byers (eds.)
Publication: 2005

Comissão para e Sobrevivência de Espécies IUCN diretrizes de manejo ex situ para a conservação de espécies (Portuguese)
Conforme hábitats e ecossistemas se tornam cada vez mais alterados e as populações cada vez mais impactadas por atividades humanas, um número crescente de espécies irá exigir alguma forma de manejo de seus indivíduos e populações para garantir sua sobrevivência. O manejo ex situ é uma opção possivel, que pode contribuir para a conservação das espécies ameaçadas. O objetivo destas diretrizes é fornecer orientações práticas sobre a avaliação de adequação e das exigências de um componente ex situ para atingir os objetivos de conservação de uma espécie.
Author: IUCN SSC
Publication: Version 2, 2014

Directrices de Uso de la Gestión Ex situ para la Conservación de Especies de la Comisión de Supervivencia de Especies de la UICN (Spanish)
Se creó un grupo de trabajo para revisar las Directrices Técnicas sobre Gestión de Poblaciones Ex Situ para Conservación de UICN para esclarecer el proceso y armonizar las directrices con los avances que habían tenido lugar desde su publicación en 2002. Este proceso comenzó con un análisis de los pasos de toma de decisiones para evaluar las actividades ex situ para beneficio de la conservación durante la Reunión Anual de la Comisión de Supervivencia de Especies de la UICN (CSE) y del Grupo de Especialistas en Cría para la Conservación (CBSG) en Colonia, Alemania, en octubre de 2010. Este análisis se llevó a cabo por personas involucradas en diferentes Grupos de Especialistas taxonómicos y disciplinares de la CSE, organizaciones de conservación in situ, y la comunidad de zoos y acuarios.
Author: IUCN/SSC
Publication: Version 2.0 August 2014

Evaluating the role of zoos and ex situ conservation in global amphibian recovery (English)
Amphibians are declining worldwide, and ex situ approaches (e.g. captive breeding and reintroduction) are increasingly incorporated into recovery strategies. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether these approaches are helping mitigate losses. To investigate this, I examine the conservation value of captive collections. I find that collections do not reflect the species of likeliest greatest concern in the future but that non-traditional zoos and conservation-focused breeding programs are bolstering the representation of threatened amphibians held ex situ. Next, I examine the reproductive success of captive breeding programs in relation to species’ biological traits and extrinsic traits of the program. Based on 285 programs, I find that not all species are breeding in captivity, yet success is not correlated to the suite of tested predictors. Overall, ex situ approaches are playing a potentially important role in amphibian conservation, but we must work to improve the representation of threatened amphibians in zoos and husbandry expertise.
Author: Alannah Biega
Publication: MSc. Thesis, Simon Fraser University, 2017

General guidelines for managers and supporters of amphibian captive breeding programmes (English)
These guidelines are produced based on information provided by managers of amphibian captive breeding programmes in Latin America, Africa and Asia, along with input from experts at Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, the Amphibian Ark (AArk) and the Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG) Captive Breeding Working Group. This information was gathered as part of an MSc thesis with Imperial College London, looking at barriers which might prevent amphibian captive breeding programmes achieving conservation success.
Author: Berglind Karlsdóttir
Publication: Version 1, 2018

IUCN Guidelines on the Use of Ex Situ Management for Species Conservation (Inglés)
The aim of these guidelines is to provide practical guidance on evaluating the suitability and requirements of an ex situ component for achieving species conservation objectives. They should not be misconstrued as promoting ex situ management over any other form of conservation action, and specific elements should not be selected in isolation to justify ex situ management for conservation. These guidelines replace the 2002 IUCN Technical Guidelines on the Management of Ex Situ Populations for Conservation.
Author: IUCN/SSC
Publication: Version 2, 2014

IUCN Guidelines for Determining When and How Ex Situ Management Should Be Used in Species Conservation (Inglés)
The Convention on Biological Diversity’s target of halting extinctions by 2020 is less than a handful of years away. Captive, or ex situ, management has long been cited as having a potential role to play in the recovery of species, although this remains the subject of debate. IUCN’s Species Survival Commission (IUCN SSC) produced guidelines to assist in identifying when ex situ management may contribute to species recovery in 2002. Since then, there have been considerable developments in a range of areas that may influence the design of such programs (e.g., understanding of constraints on breeding programs, development of new techniques and approaches, and strategic planning approaches to species conservation). IUCN SSC has therefore revised its guidance and proposes a five-step process: (1) compile a status review; (2) define the role(s) that ex situ management might play; (3) determine the precise nature of the ex situpopulation in order to meet identified role(s); (4) define resources and expertise, and appraise the feasibility and risks; and (5) make a decision that is informed based on the above analysis and transparent. These guidelines offer an objective process for considering the role of ex situ management in species conservation.
Authors: Philip J.K. McGowan, Kathy Traylor-Holzer, & Kristin Leus
Publication: Conservation Letters, May 2017, 10(3), 361–36

Is establishing a conservation breeding program for a particular species at your institution appropriate? (English)
Once it has been determined though a Conservation Needs Assessment or another credible assessment process (e.g. state or national wildlife agency) that a species is a suitable, or least a potentially suitable candidate for a captive conservation program, it is important to ensure that the institution which is proposing to host the program is fully prepared to implement and maintain the program. Most ex situ conservation programs will likely need to be managed for several years, and ensuring that sufficient funding, resources and planning is in place is crucial to achieve the best outcomes.

AArk’s program implementation tool has been updated and expanded and is a useful resource for checking how prepared your institution is to manage a conservation program for a particular species. It is a series of questions which help you to identify any components of setting up an ex situ conservation program which might not have been considered, or which might be somewhat lacking.
Authors: Kay Bradfield, Benjamin Tapley, Kevin Johnson and Luis Carrillo
Publication: AArk, July 2021

Lessons from practitioners for designing and implementing effective amphibian captive breeding programmes (English)
With 40% of global amphibian species threatened with extinction, captive breeding programmes are an increasingly important conservation tool. The highest priority species occur in tropical countries, which presents a number of challenges. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 practitioners in Latin America, Africa and Asia to investigate how the effectiveness of amphibian captive breeding programmes could be improved. A thematic analysis identified 94 barriers and enablers across 13 themes. We found that existing programmes commonly followed a reactive and often ineffective four-stage operational model. Subsequently, we developed a proactive operational model, using the barriers and enablers identified by this study, to support programme managers in the implementation of effective programmes. Our findings suggest human dimensions are often critical barriers or enablers across all stages of captive breeding programmes. We recommend the development of strategic partnerships between institutions, including zoos, NGOs, governments and captive breeding programmes, to help overcome these critical barriers and improve the effectiveness of global amphibian conservation. This operational model could be translated to captive breeding programmes for other taxa.
Authors: Karlsdóttir, B., Knight, A., Johnson, K., & Dawson, J.
Publication: Oryx, 1-11 (2021)

Practitioner and scientist perceptions of successful amphibian conservation (English)
Conservation requires successful outcomes. However, success is perceived in many different ways depending on the desired outcome. Through a questionnaire survey, we examined perceptions of success among 355 scientists and practitioners working on amphibian conservation from over 150 organizations in more than 50 countries. We also sought to identify how different types of conservation actions and respondent experience and background influenced perceptions.
Authors: Helen M.R. Meredith, Freya A.V. St. John, Ben Collen, Simon A. Black, and Richard A. Griffiths
Publication: Conservation Biology, Volume 32, No. 2, 366–375

Principios de Desarrollo y Manejo de Programas de Reproducción en Cautiverio para la Conservación de Anfibios (Spanish)
Uno de los mayores desafíos a enfrentarse con respecto a la conservación de anfibios es el gran número de especies amenazadas a nivel global. Basándonos en nuestra experiencia, el conocimiento y las observaciones de diversos programas en todo el mundo, además de las interacciones con los actores que participan en nuestros talleres y cursos, el Arca de Anfibios ha desarrollado un conjunto de principios generales a tener en cuenta en la fase de desarrollo de un programa de reproducción para la conservación de anfibios.
Authors: Luis Carrillo, Kevin Johnson y Joseph R. Mendelson III
Publication: International Zoo News Vol. 62. No. 2 (2015), pp. 96-107

Principles of Program Development and Management for Amphibian Conservation Captive Breeding Programs (English)
One of the biggest challenges in dealing with amphibian conservation is the huge number of species threatened worldwide. Based on our experience, expertise and observations of various programs worldwide, and on interactions with stakeholders participating in our workshops and courses, Amphibian Ark has developed a set of general principles to be considered in the development phase of an amphibian conservation breeding program.
Authors: Luis Carrillo, Kevin Johnson and Joseph R. Mendelson III
Publication: International Zoo News Vol. 62. No. 2 (2015), pp. 96-107


Increased Larval Density Induces Accelerated Metamorphosis Independently of Growth Rate in the Frog Rana sphenocephala (English)
Tadpoles at high density metamorphosed earlier than tadpoles at low density despite growing at similar rates. Food reductions did not accelerate metamorphosis. These results support the hypothesis that density can be a sufficient cue to initiate metamorphosis independently of growth rate.
 Janel Richter, Lincoln Martin, and Christopher K. Beachy
Publication: Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 551–554, 2009

Protocol breeding of Gastrotheca tadpoles (Spanish)
This instruction is based on personal experiences, so its application is based on the particular needs of each case. All the information is based on the experiences in the breeding and management of Gastrotheca riobambae, G. pseustes, G. litonedis, and G. lojana.
 Diego Almeida Reinoso
Publication: 2018

Tadpoles, froglets, and conservation: A discussion of basic principles of rearing and release procedures (English)
We outline component features of the captive environment and the natural world that should be considered when designing a program for head-starting and releasing amphibians, presumably as part of a conservation project. The main points indicate the importance of accounting for features of the basic biology of amphibian larvae, the biology of the focal species, and highlight the types of error risks based on generalities, human convenience, and logistical limitations. Similarly, we urge consideration and evaluation of the quality of the metamorphs that are produced over the sheer quantity produced and released. While most of the examples are taken from pondbreeding species, the general principles are relevant, and details may be modified to fit amphibian species with larvae in other habitats.
Authors: Joseph R. Mendelson III and Ronald Altig
Publication:Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(1) [General Section]: 20–27 (e116)

Tadpole Husbandry (English)
Hand-outs from PowerPoint presentation.
Author: Peter Harlow, Taronga Zoo


Amphibian Monitoring in Latin America: A Protocol Manual (English)
We wrote this manual to coincide with of series of workshops sponsored by the United States National Science Foundation. The workshops were inspired by the need to coordinate efforts among herpetologists, government agencies, and environmental organizations in light of recent, widespread reports of population declines and extinctions of amphibians in Latin America. Home to the world’s richest amphibian fauna, Latin America is a critical region for amphibian conservation. We hope that by promoting inventory and monitoring efforts across the region, scientists will be quicker to find causes for the recent declines and extinctions and recommend management actions that can reverse the population trend and avert an ecological disaster (Wake 1998).
 Karen R. Lips, Jamie K. Reaser, Bruce E. Young, Roberto Ibáñez
Publication: Ver. 2.1 July 2020

Global Re-introduction Perspectives: 2016 (Amphibian case studies) (English)
Re-introductions are powerful and important. They are powerful in terms of averting extinction, restoring ecological functions to ecosystems, and returning profound commercial, aesthetic, or cultural value. Re-introductions are important, because they can engage generations across the globe in immediate conservation action that has the potential to make a tangible and pervasive difference.

The fifth edition of the Global Re-introduction Perspectives, published by the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, contains a wide array of projects ranging from corals to amphibians, crocodiles to condors and African lions to many plant species. All these come with different levels of success and some failures. This shows that reintroduction projects are never easy and require careful planning and implementation to succeed. However, projects, which have not been successful for one reason or another, provide valuable learning experience, so that those shortcomings could be avoided.

This chapter on Amphibians includes three re-introduction case studies: the Northern Corroboree Frog in Australia, the Agile Frog on Jersey, Channel Islands, and the Northern Leopard Frog in Canada.
Author: Soorae, P. S. (ed.)
Publication: 2016

Improving breed-and-release programmes in the face of a threatening pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (English)
As the proportion of threatened species increases, so too does the need for effective conservation strategies. In response, captive breed-and-release and habitat mitigation programmes are two conservation actions that are increasing in use and effectiveness. Success of these programmes is frequently hampered by the continued presence of threatening processes. In the case of amphibian reintroductions, a key threatening process that is difficult to eliminate is the deadly fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). This pathogen is the proximate cause of decline for the threatened green and golden bell frog, Litoria aurea, and has contributed to the failure of previous breed-and-release programmes of this amphibian. This article discusses how it may be possible to manipulate these factors to improve the success of future breed-and-release programmes, and recommends the construction of warm water bodies and a strategy of prioritizing the release of fewer, large propagules of high body condition and mixed-age class, over large numbers of younger, smaller animals.
Authors: Kaya L. Klop-Toker, Jose W. Valdez, Michelle P. Stockwell, Loren Fardell, Simon Clulow, John Clulow and Michael J. Mahony
Publication: Wiley Online Library, First published: 19 August 2021

IUCN guidelines for amphibian reintroductions and other conservation translocations : first edition (English)
The number of amphibian reintroductions and other conservation translocations has increased in recent decades. Amphibian reintroductions are challenging and may not always work, but amphibian reintroductions may be the best or only option for conserving some species. Clearer guidance to plan, implement, and obtain resources for amphibian reintroductions is needed to improve conservation outcomes. These Guidelines outline the most important considerations for each stage of an amphibian reintroduction. They provide guidance, best practices, case studies, and links to helpful resources that will be useful for a wide variety of practitioners involved in amphibian reintroductions.
Authors: Luke J. Linhoff, Pritpal Soorae, Gemma Harding, Maureen A. Donnelly, Jennifer M. Germano, David A. Hunter, Michael McFadden, Joseph R. Mendelson III, Allan P. Pessier, Michael J. Sredl and Mallory E. Eckstut (eds.)
Publication: First edition, 2021

IUCN Guidelines for Reintroductions and Other Conservation Translocations (English)
The Reintroduction and Invasive Species Specialist Groups’ Task Force on Moving Plants and Animals for Conservation Purposes.
Conservation translocation is the deliberate movement of organisms from one site for release in another. It must be intended to yield a measurable conservation benefit at the levels of a population, species or ecosystem, and not only provide benefit to translocated individuals. These Guidelines are designed to be applicable to the full spectrum of conservation translocations. They are based on principle rather than example. Throughout the Guidelines there are references to accompanying Annexes that give further detail.
Author: IUCN/SSC
Publication: Version 1, 2013

Re-establishment of an extinct local population of the Valcheta Frog, Pleurodema somuncurense, in a restored habitat in Patagonia, Argentina (English)
In March 2017 and March 2018, we reintroduced 196 and 50 individuals Valcheta frogs Pleurodema somuncurense, respectively (tadpoles and juveniles). The individuals were translocated from an ex situ colony to a restored habitat at the hot springs of the Valcheta stream (Rio Negro, Argentina). The aim was to re-establish a local population of this species that had gone extinct at this site. After the individuals were released, we monitored them using night visual encounters to register the number of individuals and other relevant records that suggested acclimatization (feeding, escaping and reproduction). In addition, we performed a Capture-Mark-Recapture study to estimate the density of the reintroduced population using POPAN models. By September 2018, the estimated density was 62 ± 27 SD in a stream area of 50 m2. This does not differ from density estimates of wild populations of the Valcheta Frog. Additionally, reproduction of reintroduced frogs was recorded in September 2018 and January 2019. Egg clutches, tadpoles and juveniles were all observed at the reintroduction site. These results suggest that the reintroduction of captive bred individuals to the wild might be an effective management action to restore local populations of this species that had gone extinct.
Authors: Martínez Aguirre, T., Calvo, R., Velasco, M.A., Arellano, M.L., Zarini, O., & Kacoliris, F.P.
Publication: Conservation Evidence, 16, 48–50 (2019)

Reintroduction of the Kihansi Spray Toad Nectophrynoides asperginis Back to its Natural Habitat by Using Acclimatizing Cages (English)
The Kihansi Spray Toad (Nectophrynoides asperginis) is considered to be extinct in the wild. Captive breeding populations exist in Bronx and Toledo zoos in USA and in two captive breeding facilities in Tanzania. Efforts to reintroduce the species back to its natural habitat at Kihansi Gorge wetlands have become a long process. Both ex-situ and in-situ experiments have revealed promising outcomes but when the toads are freely (hard) released in the wetlands they disperse widely and detection becomes difficult. Cages for acclimatising the toads before hard release have been constructed in two of the Kihansi Gorge spray wetlands. Factors such as density dependence, predators, food availability and diseases have been identified of concern to successful reestablishment of the species in its natural environment. The use of large cages (60 m2), close monitoring and partial control of the factors as a new approach has shown promising results at present and for future reintroduction processes of the Kihansi Spray Toad.
Authors: Charles Msuya and Nassoro Mohamed
Publication: Tanzania Journal of Science Vol. 45 No. 4 (2019)

Translocation Proposal – Securing the Future of Kosciuszko National Park’s Unique Frog Fauna (English)
Extinctions and declines of amphibians worldwide have been occurring at an alarming rate over the past fifty years (Stuart et al. 2004). Australia has not been spared from this biodiversity crisis (Hero & Morrison 2004), and within Kosciuszko National Park (hereafter KNP), five frog species have suffered significant declines since the early 1980’s. These species are now listed as threatened under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995, the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This includes the iconic Southern Corroboree Frog (Pseudophryne corroboree), which is one of Australia’s best known frog species, and is KNP’s only endemic vertebrate. The primary cause of many recent frog declines around the world, including those in KNP, is a disease known as chytridiomycosis, which is caused by infection with the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd). Genetic studies have shown that Bd has only recently spread throughout the world (Morgan et al. 2007, Farrer et al. 2011), explaining why many frog species have limited resistance to this pathogen.

This document outlines the background information, rationale, and methods for developing new management techniques for the conservation of Kosciuszko National Park’s unique frog fauna. These techniques will aim to bolster the security and capacity of captive breeding programs for threatened frogs through the creation of pathogen/disease free populations in the wild.
Authors: David Hunter, Michael McFadden, Gerry Marantelli, Ben Scheele, Raelene Hobbs, Peter Harlow, Chris Banks, Laura Brannelly, Lee Skerratt and Lee Berger
Publication: January 2013


Amphibian hormonal induction (English)
This document describes techniques and protocols for the use of hormones. It then discusses the use of pituitaries, and provides some examples of species or species groups. The induction of ovulation of amphibians using hormones has been used since the early 20th century. Some amphibians have never reproduced in captivity without hormones and using hormonal induction many species can be reproduced at will.
Authors: Dr Robert K. Browne, and Dr Chester R. Figiel, Jr.
Publication: Amphibian Ark, 2012

Amphibian reproductive technologies: approaches and welfare considerations (English)
Captive breeding and reintroduction programs have been established for several threatened amphibian species globally, but with varied success. This reflects our relatively poor understanding of the hormonal control of amphibian reproduction and the stimuli required to initiate and complete reproductive events. While the amphibian hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis shares fundamental similarities with both teleosts and tetrapods, there are more species differences than previously assumed. As a result, many amphibian captive breeding programs fail to reliably initiate breeding behaviour, achieve high rates of fertilization or generate large numbers of healthy, genetically diverse offspring. Reproductive technologies have the potential to overcome these challenges but should be used in concert with traditional methods that manipulate environmental conditions (including temperature, nutrition and social environment). Species-dependent methods for handling, restraint and hormone administration (including route and frequency) are discussed to ensure optimal welfare of captive breeding stock. We summarize advances in hormone therapies and discuss two case studies that illustrate some of the challenges and successes with amphibian reproductive technologies: the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa; USA) and the northern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne pengilleyi; Australia). Further research is required to develop hormone therapies for a greater number of species to boost global conservation efforts.
Authors: Aimee J. Silla, Natalie E. Calatayud, Vance L. Trudeau
Publication: Conservation Physiology, Volume 9, Issue 1, 2021, coab011

Applied reproductive technologies and genetic resource banking for amphibian conservation (English)
As amphibian populations continue to decline, both government and non-government organisations are establishing captive assurance colonies to secure populations deemed at risk of extinction if left in the wild. For the most part, little is known about the nutritional ecology, reproductive biology or husbandry needs of the animals placed into captive breeding programs. Academic and zoo scientists are beginning to examine different technologies for maintaining the genetic diversity of founder populations brought out of the wild before the animals become extinct from rapidly spreading epizootic diseases. One such technology is genetic resource banking and applied reproductive technologies for species that are difficult to reproduce reliably in captivity.
Authors: Andrew J. Kouba, and Carrie K. Vance
Publication: Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 2009, 21 , 719–737

Artificial fertilization for amphibian conservation: Current knowledge and future considerations (English)
Amphibian populations in the wild are experiencing massive die-offs that have led to the extinction of an estimated 168 species in the last several decades. To address these declines, zoological institutions are playing an important role in establishing captive assurance colonies to protect species in imminent danger of extinction. Many of the threatened species recently placed into captivity are failing to reproduce before they expire, and maintaining founder populations is becoming a formidable challenge. Assisted reproductive technologies, such as hormone synchronization, gamete storage and artificial fertilization, are valuable tools for addressing reproductive failure of amphibians in captive facilities. Artificial fertilization has been commonly employed for over 60 years in several keystone laboratory species for basic studies in developmental biology and embryology. However, there are few instances of applied studies for the conservation of threatened or endangered amphibian species. In this review, we summarize valuable technological achievements in amphibian artificial fertilization, identify specific processes that need to be considered when developing artificial fertilization techniques for species conservation, and address future concerns that should be priorities for the next decade.
Authors: Kouba, A.J., Vance, C.K. and Willis, E.L.
Publication: Science Direct, Theriogenology 71 (2009) 214–227

Hormonal induction of spawning in 4 species of frogs by coinjection with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a dopamine antagonist (English)
It is well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity. Some methods are based on administration of mammalian hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, which are not effective in many frogs. There is a need for simple, cost-effective alternative techniques to induce spawning. Our approach offers some advantages over other hormonally-based techniques. Both sexes are injected only once and at the same time, reducing handling stress. AMPHIPLEX is a new reproductive management tool for captive breeding in Anura.
Authors: Vance L Trudeau, Gustavo M Somoza, Guillermo S Natale, Bruce Pauli, Jacqui Wignall, Paula Jackman, Ken Doe and Fredrick W Schueler
Publication: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2010, 8 :36

Hormonal Induction of Spermiation, Courting Behavior and Spawning in the Southern Bell Frog, Litoria raniformis (English)
We trialled the efficacy of various exogenous hormones to induce spermiation, courtship behavior, and spawning in the ‘‘endangered’’ southern bell frog, Litoria raniformis. This and earlier studies indicate that in the efficacy of hormonal induction in amphibians varies between taxa, hormones, and genders.
Authors: Reinier M. Mann, Ross V. Hyne, and Catherine B. Choung
Publication: Zoo Biology 29:774–782 (2010)

Reproduction and Larval Rearing of Amphibians (English)
Reproduction technologies for amphibians are increasingly used for the in vitro treatment of ovulation, spermiation, oocytes, eggs, sperm, and larvae. Recent advances in reproduction technologies for amphibians include improved hormonal induction of oocytes and sperm, storage of sperm and oocytes, artificial fertilization, and high-density rearing of larvae to metamorphosis. In both research and captive breeding programs, it is necessary to provide suitable conditions for the rearing of large numbers of a diverse range of species. Compared with traditional systems, the raising of larvae at high densities has the potential to produce these large numbers of larvae in smaller spaces and to reduce costs.
Authors: Robert K. Browne and Kevin Zippel
Publication: ILAR Journal, Volume 48, Number 3 2007

Reproductive Techniques for Ovarian Monitoring and Control in Amphibians (English)
Ovarian control and monitoring in amphibians require a multi-faceted approach. There are several applications that can successfully induce
reproductive behaviors and the acquisition of gametes and embryos for physiological or molecular research. Amphibians contribute to one quarter to one-third of vertebrate research, and of interest in this context is their contribution to the scientific community’s knowledge of reproductive processes and embryological development. However, most of this knowledge is derived from a small number of species. In recent times, the decimation of amphibians across the globe has required increasing intervention by conservationists. The captive recovery and assurance colonies that continue to emerge in response to the extinction risk make existing research and clinical applications invaluable to the survival and reproduction of amphibians held under human care. The success of any captive population is founded on its health and reproduction and the ability to develop viable offspring that carry forward the most diverse genetic representation of their species. For researchers and veterinarians, the ability to monitor and control ovarian development and health is, therefore, imperative. The focus of this article is to highlight the different assisted reproductive techniques that can be used to monitor and, where appropriate or necessary, control ovarian function in amphibians. Ideally, any reproductive and health issues should be reduced through proper captive husbandry, but, as with any animal, issues of health and reproductive pathologies are inevitable. Non-invasive techniques include behavioral assessments, visual inspection and palpation and morphometric measurements for the calculation of body condition indices and ultrasound. Invasive techniques include hormonal injections, blood sampling, and surgery. Ovarian control can be exercised in a number of ways depending on the application required and species of interest.
Authors: Natalie E. Calatayud, Norin Chai, Nicole R. Gardner, Michelle J. Curtis, Monica A. Stoops
Publication: J. Vis. Exp. (147), e58675, doi:10.3791/58675 (2019)

Species-Specific Husbandry

Agalychnis lemur – Husbandry Guidelines (2012) (English)
Author: Tim Skelton
Publication: January 2011 [revised July 2012]

An Attempt to Breed Atelopus flavescens by Artificial Means (English)
Author: Peter Mudde
Publication: Leaf Litter Vol. 1, Number 1 Spring 2007

An overview of current efforts to conserve the Critically Endangered mountain chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) on Dominica (English)
Dominica was once the stronghold of one of the giants amongst frogs: the mountain chicken (Leptodactylus fallax). L. fallax is the largest amphibian in the Caribbean region. In December 2002, the presence of dead and sick L. fallax came to the attention of the authorities in Dominica. Over the following twelve to eighteen months, the Dominican L. fallax population crashed to the extent that no animals could be detected during routine surveys.
Authors: Benjamin Tapley, Luke Harding, Machel Sulton, Stephen Durand, Minchinton Burton, Jenny Spencer, Reginald Thomas, Trevorne Douglas, Jacqueline Andre, Randolph Winston, Meckeith George, Marta Gaworek-Michalczenia, Mike Hudson, Alex Blackman, James Dale and Andrew A. Cunningham
Publication: The Herpetological Bulletin 128, 2014: 9-11

Aspects of captive husbandry of Taylor’s Bug-eyed Frog, Theloderma stellatum (English)
Taylor’s Bug-eyed Frog (Theloderma stellatum) is a small Rhacophorid listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List as the extent of its habitat is declining and becoming increasingly degraded (IUCN et al., 2006). It has been recorded in eastern Thailand and south of central Vietnam and southern Laos (Orlov et al., 2002). Recently T. stellatum has been recorded in Eastern Cambodia (Stuart et al., 2006).
Author: Benjamin Tapley, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Publication: Herpetological Bulletin [2009] – Number 108

Atelopus (varius) zeteki – Husbandry Manual (English)
As a precautionary measure against extinction, ex situ populations of golden frogs are being maintained. Over two dozen founder pairs of have successfully spawned producing thousands of offspring.
Author: Vicky Poole, National Aquarium in Baltimore
Publication: Second edition, 2006

Basic guidelines for the breeding and maintenance of Atelopus nanay in captivity (Spanish)
The project “Conservation of Amphibians and Genetic Resources (PARG)”, launched in 2015 and supported by the Ministry of the Environment (MAE), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the Fund for the Environment Global Environment (GEF), the Jambatu Conservation and Research Center, and IKIAM, is an initiative that contemplates the investigation of biomolecules obtained from the skin of amphibians, the creation of areas for the
in situ protection of amphibians and the development of strategies for the ex situ breeding of threatened species in centers or laboratories that house Ecuadorian amphibians. One of the conservation centers within this project is the Amaru Amphibian Conservation Center (CCAA), located in the city of Cuenca. Since 2007, the CCAA has worked on the breeding and conservation of one of the target species of PARG,
Atelopus nanay, under the direction of Blgo. Fausto Siavichay P, current coordinator of the center. This species is endemic to Ecuador and is in critical danger of disappearing due to the degradation of its habitat, climate change, the introduction of trout as an invasive species and possibly due to the presence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the causal agent of chytridiomycosis.
Author: Noemí Torres Sarango
Publication: December 2019

Basic manual for the care in captivity of the Xochimilco axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) (Spanish)
This manual is addressed to all these people, whose objective is to provide the necessary information for the knowledge and maintenance of the Xochimilco axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) in captivity. It is important to point out that currently, in addition to the Xochimilco axolotl, other species of salamanders are threatened or endangered; this situation supposes as a priority a knowledge of the current regulations in terms of possession of a specimen of this species as a pet. Likewise, in order to provide adequate treatment and provide the necessary elements for the welfare of this species in captivity, this manual presents the essential recommendations to consider, from the identification and acquisition of a specimen, through strategies for its management. , to the facilities and equipment necessary to achieve adequate containment. Suggestions are also given on how to maintain the health of the organisms and finally, by way of conclusion and for a better understanding, the measures that are currently being put into practice for the conservation of this species are presented.
Authors: Horacio Mena González and Erika Servín Zamora,
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
Publication: February 2014

Best Practice Guidelines for the Mountain Chicken Leptodactylus fallax (English)
The information in these Best Practice Guidelines have come from a variety of sources including an extensive literature review, the experience of the authors, and direct observations of Leptodactylus fallax in the field. Much of the non-husbandry related information was lifted directly from the Species Action Plan for L. fallax (Adams et al. 2014), to which a number of the authors also contributed. Captive breeding of Leptodactylus fallax is essential for the long-term survival of the species, ensuring the viability and growth of the ex-situ population. This ex-situ population represents the potential founder stock for reintroductions and translocations of L. fallax, as well as a resource for research on the species. As such, these Best Practice Guidelines form a key component of the global conservation effort for L. fallax in maximising the effectiveness of the captive management of the species.
Authors: Tom Jameson, Benjamin Tapley, Alberto Barbón, Matthias Goetz, Luke Harding, Javier López, Katy Upton and Gerardo García
Publication: Edition 1, 2019

Breeding and rearing the critically endangered Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes Loumont and Kobel 1991) (English)
The Lake Oku Clawed Frog Xenopus longipes is a Critically Endangered, dodecaploid anuran endemic to Lake Oku in Cameroon. An ex situ population of this species was established at Zoological Society of London (ZSL), London Zoo in 2008, as well as at several other institutions, with the intention of providing data on the biology and husbandry of this species. We report the first captive breeding of the species. Adult frogs maintained under environmental conditions designed to mimic field data produced clutches of 7–300 eggs; eggs measured 1.23 mm in diameter, and were laid singly after a period of 6.5 hours in axial amplexus. Spawning took place only during the day. Tadpoles hatched in 2–3 days and development was very long compared to congeners, lasting 193–240+ days until metamorphosis. Tadpoles grew very large (maximum 79 mm total length), particularly compared with the relatively small adult size (maximum 36 mm Snout to Vent Length [SVL]). Tadpoles proved to be highly sensitive to total dissolved solids (TDS) in the water and only thrived when low levels (20 mg/L) were used. Metamorphosis concluded with an SVL of 19–25 mm and F1 animals began first sexual activity at 5–6 months post metamorphosis. These data will inform future husbandry in captivity as well as illuminating facets of biology previously unknown and
difficult to determine in the field.
Authors: Michaels, C. J., Tapley, B., Harding, L., Bryant, Z., & Grant, S.
Publication: Amphibian & Reptile Conservation, 9(2), 100–110. 2015

Captive breeding program for Scinax alcatraz (Anura: Hylidae): introducing amphibian ex situ conservation in Brazil (English)
Scinax alcatraz is endemic to a small island (“Ilha dos Alcatrazes”), and is threatened by restricted distribution and habitat loss. Here, we present present the establishment of a captive breeding program for S. alcatraz at São Paulo Zoo, and introduce ex situ conservation as a strategy for amphibians in Brazil. We recorded 125 breeding events with about 10,200 eggs laid. We also observed that S. alcatraz does not have a marked breeding season, laying eggs throughout the year, and that breeding events are positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively correlated with temperature. This program has shown great success in the maintenance and reproduction of S. alcatraz in captivity, and has great potential for conducting research relevant to amphibian conservation and for the development of educational materials to share information about the global amphibian crisis, using S. alcatraz as a fagship species.
Authors: Cybele S. Lisboa, Renata I. Vaz, and Cinthia A. Brasileiro
Publication: Amphibian & Reptile Conservation, 14(2) [General Section]: 279–288 (e293), 2021

Captive husbandry and breeding of file-eared tree frogs, Polypedates otilophus (English)
Six Polypedates otilophus were reared from small juveniles to adult breeding size over a period of 18 months. An account of captive husbandry and breeding is provided. Clutch size ranged from 44 – 119 eggs. Eggs hatched after ten days and tadpoles attained total lengths of 85 mm. Metamorphosis took 74 – 84 days at 22 – 26 ˚C.
Authors: Benjamin Tapley and Suzan Meryem Girgin
Publication: The Herpetological Bulletin 132, 2015: 5-8

Captive management and breeding of Romer’s tree frog, Chiraxalus romeri (English)
In the early 1990s, a significant portion of the range of the endemic Romer’s Tree Frog <em>Chirixalus romeri </em>was threatened by the construction of the new international airport in Hong Kong. Melbourne Zoo, Australia, partnered with The University of Hong Kong to establish a captive breeding program as part of a broader conservation initiative to secure the species in the wild. Large numbers of frogs were successfully bred at both facilities, underpinning the success of subsequent releases.
Authors: C. B. Banks, M. W. N. LAau & D. Dudgeon
Publication: The Herpetological Bulletin 132, 2015: 5-8

Captive management and reproduction of the critically endangered southern Corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree) at Taronga and Melbourne Zoos (English)
The Southern Corroboree Frog Pseudophryne corroboree is a small myobatrachid frog from southeastern Australia that has rapidly declined in recent decades largely due to disease , caused by infection with the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. As a key recovery effort to prevent the imminent extinction of this species, an ex situ captive breeding program has been established in a collaborative partnership between Australian zoological institutions and a state wildlife department. Despite initial difficulties, successful captive breeding protocols have been established. Key factors in achieving breeding in this species include providing an adequate pre-breeding cooling period for adult frogs, separation of sexes during the non-breeding period, allowing female mate-choice via the provision of numerous males per enclosure and permitting the females to attain significant mass prior to breeding. Difficulties were experienced with egg and larval mortality in early years, though these issues have since been largely resolved. To date, the success of captive breeding from 2010–2012 has permitted the reintroduction of 1,060 captive-produced eggs and an increasing captive population. size that will support conservation research and provide insurance against further declines.
Authors: Michael McFadden, Raelene Hobbs, Gerry Marantelli, Peter Harlow, Chris Banks and David Hunter
Publication: Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 5(3): 70–87

Captive Reproduction of the Orange-legged Monkey Frog (Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis), and Development of a Protocol for Phyllomedusine Frog Reproduction in the Laboratory (English)
Author: Danté Fenolio, Amphibia Research Group
Publication: Advances in Herpetoculture, 1996, 13-21

Centrolenid (Glass Frog) Husbandry (English)
The purpose of the Specialty Taxa Monograph is to provide more information on husbandry and breeding of different taxa that may be encountered in amphibian collections. It is intended to be an addendum to the Basic Husbandry Monograph, where basic principles are addressed. Some husbandry specifics are based on experience at the Atlanta Botanical Garden (ABG) and others may experience different results.
Authors: Robert Hill and Ron Gagliardo, Atlanta Botanical Garden
Publication: Version 1, April 2008

Conservación ex situ del Sapo Arlequin de Wampukrum, de la Rana de Cristal de McDiarmid y la rana de Cristal Sabetari en el Centro de Conservación de Anfibios – Zoo Amaru (Spanish)
El Centro de Conservación de Anfibios – Zoo AMARU en Cuenca (ACC-Amaru), se dedica a ayudar a salvar los anfibios en peligro de extinción en Ecuador y actualmente mantiene poblaciones de varios anfibios en peligro de extinción únicos para la Cordillera del Cóndor, incluyendo el Sapo Arlequin Wampukrum (Atelopus wampukrumsp. nov.), la Rana de Cristal de McDiarmid (Rulyrana mcdiarmidi) y la rana de Cristal Sabetari (Cochranella erminea).
Authors: Fausto Siavichay Pesántez y Carlos C. Martínez Rivera
Publication: AArk Newsletter, December 2015

Cría en cautividad y uso sostenible de la rana gigante del lago Titicaca (Telmatobius culeus) (Spanish)
Entre febrero de 2001 y enero de 2002 se realizaron estudios orientados a la conservación de la rana gigante del lago Titicaca (Telmatobius culeus), especie endémica amenazada por el comercio ilegal. Fueron realizados ensayos de cría en diversos ambientes.

Between February 2001 and January 2002, I studied the breeding biology of the Lake Titicaca giant frog (Telmatobius culeus). This frog is endemic to the Lake Titicaca, and is threatened by the illegal trade. The study included evaluations of the response to various enclosures.
Author: María Esther Pérez Beja
Publication: Monogr. Herpetol. (2005) 7:261-271

Cruziohyla captive husbandry guidelines (English)
Notes on the captive husbandry of Cruziohyla.
Author: Andrew Gray
Publication: Frog Blog Manchester Museum

Development of a body condition score for the mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) (English)
The Critically Endangered mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) has undergone drastic population decline due to habitat loss, hunting, invasive species, and chytridiomycosis. In response, several partner institutions initiated a conservation breeding program. It is important to maintain the captive population in good health. Therefore the program partners have recommended establishment of protocols for health examination of the species, including body condition assessment. Visual body condition scoring is a useful means to assess body condition in zoo animals for which regular bodyweight measurements are impractical or associated with capture‐related stress. In this study, the authors developed a visual body condition score for the mountain chicken frog based on an ordinal categorical scale from 1 to 5 (1 = lowest body condition, 5 = highest body condition) using anatomical features that vary with total body energy reserves. Veterinary staff, animal managers, keepers, researchers, and students subsequently used the body condition score to assign scores to 98 mountain chicken frogs (41 male, 57 female) aged between 8 months and 12 years housed in five zoos in the UK and Jersey between February and March 2016. Body condition scores showed moderate (rho = 0.54; males) to strong (rho = 0.6; females) correlation with the scaled mass index, an objective measure of total energy reserves. The majority of pairwise comparisons between scores showed slight to substantial intra-observer agreement (93.8%) and slight to almost perfect inter-observer agreement (97.2%). Cases of poor agreement were likely due to limited observer experience working with the species..
Authors: Jayson, S., Harding, L., Michaels, C., Tapley, B., Hedley, J., Goetz, M., Rodriguez B.A., Garcia, G., Lopez, J., and Flach, E.
Publication: Zoo Biology. 37. 10.1002/zoo.21409 (2018)

Developmental life stages of the Pickersgill’s reed frog (Hyperolius pickersgilli) in an ex‐situ environment at Johannesburg Zoo’s captive breeding facility, South Africa (English)
We initiated a captive breeding project to create an insurance population for the endangered Pickersgill’s reed frog (Hyperolius pickersgilli Raw, 1982) at the Johannesburg Zoo from parents collected from KwaZulu‐Natal Province, South Africa, in 2017. We found that this species has seven developmental life stages, each with unique management requirements… A greater understanding of Pickersgill’s reed frog’s developmental stages and physiological and environmental needs can improve captive breeding and subsequent release of the frogs, facilitate captive breeding elsewhere, and improve the species’ conservation status.
Authors: Ian du Plessis, Adrian Armstrong, Piet L. Malepa, Arnold T. Kanengoni, Cormac Price, Colleen T. Downs
Publication: Zoo Biology. 2022;1–11 DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21688

Distribution of Typhlonectes natans in Colombia, environmental parameters and implications for captive husbandry (English)
Caecilians (Order Gymnophiona) remain enigmatic to a large extent. Their tropical distribution and often subterranean habits mean that they are rarely encountered in routine herpetological surveys (Gower & Wilkinson, 2005). The population and therefore conservation status of many caecilian species is unknown (IUCN et al., 2006).
Authors: Benjamin Tapley and Andrés Rymel Acosta-Galvis
Publication: Herpetological Bulletin [2010] – Number 113

EAZA Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for (striped) fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra (terrestris) (English)
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines (Striped) fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra (terrestris) is the first version of the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for this species. This guideline has evolved out of the growing concern for extinction of local fire salamander populations due to the introduction of the invasive chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) into Europe. Multiple populations of Salamandra salamandra terrestris have collapsed in north-western Europe. Upon the discovery of Bsal, and associated mass mortalities, a captive assurance colony was established in the Netherlands at GAIA Zoo and later also in Rotterdam Zoo. A studbook is managed in ZIMS by GAIA Zoo. In the face of continuous spreading of Bsal into new areas within Belgium and Germany, both countries aim to develop similar ex-situ programs. To ensure collaboration, shared goals and to effectively share knowledge and resources, the multidisciplinary ’Ex-situ Salamandra Group’ (ESG) was initiated by scientists, NGOs and zoos from the three bordering Bsal affected countries. Close collaboration and mutual commitment between all partners involved is the strength of this group.
Authors: Sergé Bogaerts, Stefan Lötters, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Kathleen Preiβler, Barbara Caspers, Pia Oswald, Christopher Michaels, Tjerk ter Meulen, Timm Reinhardt, An Martel and Frank Pasmans (editors)
Publication: 1st edition, July 2021

EAZA Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for the Lake Oku frog Xenopus longipes (English)
The information in this Best Practice Guideline has come from a variety of sources including a literature review, the experience of the authors and others in the captive husbandry of Xenopus longipes as well as direct observations of the species in the field. Amphibian husbandry is a rapidly evolving field and there are many aspects that require further research. Breeding triggers for X. longipes are currently unknown; this area should be a focus of further research if captive populations are to be viable. The vocalisation of X. longipes has not yet been described and further attempts to document and describe vocalisation should be made as this may facilitate monitoring of the species in Lake Oku.
Authors: Benjamin Tapley, Christopher Michaels, Luke Harding, Zoe Bryant, Iri Gill, Sebastian Grant, Nicole Chaney, Freeland Dunker, Brian Freiermuth, Jarrod Willis, David Blackburn & Thomas Doherty‐Bone
Publication: EAZA, 2016

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the Lake Pátzcuaro salamander (Ambystoma dumerilii) – first edition (English)
The Lake Pátzcuaro Salamander, or Achoque, is a Critically Endangered species of aquatic salamander endemic to a single lake located in Michoacán state of Mexico. The species is directly threatened by extinction due to a multitude of factors. Therefore, the maintenance of this species in captive colonies may be of vital importance to enhance future conservation efforts. This best practice guideline is the result of collaboration between multiple individuals and institutions within Mexico and within EAZA that are dedicated to the conservation of this unique and enigmatic species.
Authors: Adam W. Bland, Christopher J. Michaels, Gerardo Garcia, Benjamin Tapley, Omar Domínguez Domínguez, Rodolfo Pérez Rodríguez, Luis H. Escalera Vázquez, Ellie McLaren, Javier Lopez and Paul Bamford
Publication: EAZA, 2021

EAZA Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for Midwife toads (Alytes sp.) (English)
Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves committed.

The information in this Best Practice Guideline has come from a variety of sources including an extensive literature review, the experience of the authors and others in the captive husbandry of Alytes species as well as direct observations of the species in the field.
Authors: Elizabeth Wells, David Garcia – Alonso, Gonçalo M. Rosa, Gerardo Garcia & Benjamin Tapley
Publication: Version 1, 2015

EAZA Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for the Sardinian brook salamander Euproctus platycephalus (English)
These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves committed. Above and beyond this, some countries have defined regulatory minimum standards for the keeping of individual species regarding the size and furnishings of enclosures etc., which, according to the opinion of authors, should definitely be fulfilled before allowing such animals to be kept within the area of the jurisdiction of those countries. These minimum standards are intended to determine the borderline of acceptable animal welfare. It is not permitted to fall short of these standards. How difficult it is to determine the standards, however, can be seen in the fact that minimum standards vary from country to country.
Authors: Benjamin Tapley, Christopher Michaels, Daniele Macale, Leonardo Vignoli,Luke Harding, Zoe Bryant, Iri Gill and Sheila Funnel
Publication: EAZA, 2015

EAZA Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group Best Practice Guidelines for typhlonectid caecilians (English)
The information in this Best Practice Guideline has come from a variety of sources including a literature review, the experience of the authors and others in the captive husbandry of typhlonectid caecilians; a caecilian husbandry questionnaire that involved both zoological collections, aquariums and keepers from the private sector as well as direct observations of the species in the field. Amphibian husbandry is a rapidly evolving field and there are many aspects that require further research. The exact breeding triggers for typhlonectid caecilians are unknown and further research would be beneficial. Typhlonectid caecilians have also tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causative agent of the disease chytridiomycosis. Treatment of Bd infections in caecilians has had mixed success. Further research into the epidemiology of the disease in caecilians as well as treatment protocols also require further research.
Authors: Benjamin Tapley, David J. Gower, Christopher J. Michaels, Alberto Barbon, Matt Goetz, Javier Lopez, Adam Bland, Gerardo Garcia, Nathanial A. Nelson and Mark Wilkinson
Publication: Version 1, 2019

Echinotriton andersoni Taxon Management Account (English)
Author: Compiled by Kevin Zippel
Publication: March 2000

Elevage d’une Rainette marsupiale arboricole des forêts nuageuses équatoriennes, Gastrotheca plumbea (Boulenger) (Français)
Breeding a marsupial tree frog from the cloud forest of Ecuador Gastrotheca plumbea (Boulenger).
Authors: Michèle Auber-Thomay, Luis Coloma and Giovanni Onore, Revue française d’aquariologie
Publication: Revue fr. Aquariol., 17 (1990), 2, 15 November 1990

Ex situ conservation of the Wampukrum Harlequin Toad, McDiarmid’s Glass Frog, and Sabetari Glass Frogs at the Amphibian Conservation Center – Zoo Amaru (English)
The Amphibian Conservation Center – Zoo AMARU in Cuenca (ACC-Amaru), is dedicated to helping save Ecuador’s endangered amphibians and currently holds populations of several endangered amphibians unique to Cordillera del Condor, including the Wampukrum Harlequin Toad (Atelopus wampukrumsp. nov.), McDiarmid’s Glass Frog (Rulyrana mcdiarmidi), and Sabetari Glass Frogs (Cochranella erminea).
Authors: Fausto Siavichay Pesántez and Carlos C. Martínez Rivera
Publication: AArk Newsletter, December 2015

Ex situ conservation program for the Andean Marsupial Tree Frog (English)
The Quito Zoo in Guayllabamba, Ecuador began an ex situ conservation program for the Andean Marsupial Tree Frog (Gastrotheca riobambae) in November 2014 with specimens collected from populations in the north east of Pichincha. These adults are currently on display, although the first tadpoles to be bred at the Zoo have been transferred to a separate management area at the Zoo.
Authors: María Teresa Alvear and Diego Almeida Reinoso
Publication: AArk Newsletter, June 2015

Ex Situ Management Guidelines – Neurergus kaiseri (English)
Author: Compiled by Helena Olsson edited by Richard Gibson

General Husbandry of Terrestrial (Fossorial) Caecilians in Captivity (English)
Caecilians are a rather strange group of limbless, worm-like, and annulated amphibians of the Order Gymnophiona. They have no external ear openings (a stapes is present in some, but not others; Wever and Gans, 1976; Exbrayat, 2006), and their eyes are tiny and covered by skin and/or bone (Duellman and Treub 1986; Wake 1994). While some caecilians are aquatic (e.g., Typhlonectes), the majority of the approximately 34 genera and ca. 165-200 species (Jenkins and Walsh, 1993; Duellman and Trueb 1986; Wilkinson et al., 2011) are terrestrial spending most of their lives underground burrowing in soil or plant litter…. After keeping terrestrial caecilians in my live animal lab for several years, I have developed a general husbandry protocol that may prove useful to others. Keep in mind that the information presented here is what has worked for me over the years, and to be honest, is the result of trial-and-error and information gained from corresponding with other “caecilian keepers” in the academic and hobby arenas…. While certain species may require modifications to the general husbandry techniques I purpose here, these methods and products have worked well for me over the years. The proper enclosure, substrate, temperature and moisture regime, and food are the most important needs that must be met to promote good health and long term maintenance of caecilians in captivity.
Author: Dennis Parmley, Georgia College & State University, Biology Department, Milledgeville, GA, USA
Publication: July 2013

Giant Salamanders Husbandry Guidelines (English)
The husbandry guidelines for the Giant Salamanders are produced in the hope that this will contribute to saving these impressive amphibian species from dying out in the wild as well in the zoological gardens. There are many efforts made in the countries of origin in order to establish a solid captive population. In the majority of European zoos there are currently roughly 22 specimens kept mostly as separate single specimens. However, the European population in the zoological gardens seems to be in a very poor condition and additionally aging without any promising breeding prospects. It seems to be essential to consider purposefulness of importing new founders and starting to display the Andrias species in the proper breeding facilities. This could also become a great educational task, as Andrias which is a magnificent amphibian representative can play a role of a considerable flag species in the protection of amphibians in the wild.
Author: Aleksander Niwelinski, Zoological Garden in Plock, Poland on behalf of the EAZA Amphibian and Reptile Taxon Advisory Group
Publication: 2007

Husbandry, general care, and transportation of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis (English)
Maintenance of optimal conditions such as water parameters, diet, and feeding is essential to a healthy Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis colony and thus to the productivity of the lab. Our prior husbandry experience as well as the rapid growth of the National Xenopus Resource has given us a unique insight into identifying and implementing these optimal parameters into our husbandry operations. Here, we discuss our standard operating procedures which will be of use to both new and established Xenopus facilities.
Authors: Sean McNamara, Marcin Wlizla and Marko E. Horb
Publication: Methods Mol Biol. 2018

Husbandry Guidelines for Ambystoma dumerilii (Spanish)
Author: Biól. Manuel Antonio Pérez Rodríguez
Publication: February 2020

Husbandry Guidelines for Ambystoma dumerilii (Spanish)
Author: Erika Servín Zamora
Publication: June 2017

Husbandry Guidelines, Aromobates duranti (Spanish)
Author: Enrique La Marca
Publication: May 2019

Husbandry Guidelines for Aromobates meridensis (Spanish)
Authors: Osmary Leal y Enrique La Marca
Publication: Mayo 2017

Husbandry Guidelines for Aromobates zippeli (Spanish)
Author: Enrique La Marca
Publication: October 2018

Husbandry Guidelines for La Banderita Marsupial Frog Gastrotheca gracilis (English)
Authors: Mauricio Sebastián Akmentins, Martín Boullhesen and Elena Correa
Publication: May 2020

Husbandry Guidelines for Leptodactylus sp. (Spanish)
Author: Enrique La Marca
Publication: June 2017

Husbandry Guidelines for Mannophryne collaris (Spanish)
Author: Enrique La Marca
Publication: May 2016

Husbandry Guidelines for Pickersgill’s Reed Frog (Hyperolius pickersgilli) (English)
The Amphibian Research Project (ARP) of the Johannesburg City Parks and Zoo (JCPZ) was initiated in 2006 with the objective of conserving selected South African endangered amphibian species by creating and establishing sustainable insurance populations. The project’s other objectives were to compile detailed husbandry manuals and protocols to successfully breed and maintain these endangered species ex-situ, for introduction, reintroduction, or reinforcement in the wild. The first Endangered species bred in this project was the Pickersgill’s reed frog (Hyperolius pickersgilli).
Authors: Johannesburg City Parks and Zoo Amphibian Research Project Team
Publication: 2022

Husbandry, captive breeding, larval development and stages of the Malayan horned frog Megophrys nasuta (English)
We report long-term experience with the successful keeping and breeding of Megophrys nasuta at the Cologne Zoo’s Amphibian Breeding Unit and compare data with other breeding reports. In addition, we document the development and morphology of different larval stages of M. nasuta.
Authors: Marlen Wildenhues, Anna Rauhaus, Rike Bach, Detlef Karbe, Karin Van Der Straeten, Stefan T. Hertwig, and Thomas Ziegler
Publication: Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 5(3):15-28, 2012

Husbandry Guidelines Template (English)
MS Word document template for producing amphibian husbandry guidelines. English version.
Author: AArk / WAZA
Publication: 2015

Husbandry Guidelines, Mannophryne collaris (English)
Author: Enrique La Marca
Publication: May 2016

Mantella aurantiaca Ex Situ Management Guidelines (English)
Authors: Craig Walker and Richard Gibson, ZSL; Devin Edmonds , Association Mitsinjo
Publication: February 2013

Neurergus kaiseri Ex Situ Management Guidelines (English)
Author: Compiled by Helena Olsson and edited by Richard Gibson

New Zealand Native Frog Captive Husbandry Manual (English)
The principal audience for this document are employees of the New Zealand Department of Conservation and any external organisation or individual with an interest or intent to keep and maintain Leiopelma frogs in captivity.
Author: Nadia Webster, Department of Conservation
Publication: May 2004

Notes on the captive husbandry and breeding of the Shovel-footed Squeaker, Arthroleptis stenodactylus (English)
This species is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red list due to its widespread distribution and tolerance of a range of habitats. it is notable, however, that it may represent a complex of cryptic species, and taxonomic revision of the complex is required (Channing & Howell, 2006). Arthroleptis stenodactylus is found throughout coastal Kenya, eastern and southern Tanzania, the island of Zanzibar, Mozambique, Zambia, the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo to western Angola, northern Botswana, Zimbabwe and north-eastern South Africa.
Author: Benjamin Tapley
Publication: Number 110 – Herpetological Bulletin [2009]

Observations on the Captive Reproduction of the Horned Marsupial Frog Gastrotheca cornuta (Boulenger 1898) (English)
The marsupial frogs (Family Hemiphractidae) from Latin America are some of the most intriguing anuran species known. As their name implies, females of these frogs bear a dorsal pouch in which they carry eggs, tadpoles and/or froglets.
Authors: Ronald Gagliardo, Edgardo Griffith, Robert Hill, Heidi Ross, Joseph R. Mendelson III, Elizabeth Timpe, Brad Wilson
Publication: Herpetological Review, 2010, 4(1), 52-58

Observations sur le développement de la Rainette Marsupiale, Gastrotheca riobambae (Hylides) (Français)
Authors: Michèle Auber-Thomay and Francoise Letellier
Publication: Rev. fr. Aquariol., 13 (1986), 3, 15 November 1986

Pautas de Manejo Ex Situ (Spanish)
MS Word document template for producing amphibian husbandry guidelines. Spanish version.
Author: AArk / WAZA
Publication: 2015

Pautas de Manejo Ex Situ (Spanish)
MS Word document template for producing amphibian husbandry guidelines. Spanish version.
Author: AArk / WAZA
Publication: 2015

Pautas de Manejo Ex Situ, Sapito de las Sierras, Melanophryniscus nigricans (Spanish)
Husbandry guidelines for the Critically Endangered Darwin’s blackish toad / Sapito de las Sierras (Melanophryniscus nigricans) in Argentina.
Authors: Igor Berkunsky and Manuela Santiago
Publication: March 2022

Pautas de Manejo por Gastrotheca gracilis (Spanish)
Authors: Mauricio Sebastián Akmentins, Martín Boullhesen y Elena Correa
Publication: May 2020

Phyllomedusine (Leaf Frog) Husbandry (English)
Author: Ron Gagliardo, Amphibian Ark
Publication: Version 2, April 2009

Programa de conservación ex situ de la rana marsupial andina (Spanish)
El Zoológico de Quito en Guayllabamba, Ecuador inició el programa de conservación ex situ de la Rana Marsupial Andina (Gastrotheca riobambae) en Noviembre de 2014 con ejemplares provenientes de las poblaciones del Nor Oriente de Pichincha. Estos ejemplares adultos se encuentran actualmente en exhibición, de los cuales se obtuvieron los primeros renacuajos, que posteriormente fueron trasladados al área de manejo ex situ del Zoológico.
Authors: María Teresa Alvear y Diego Almeida Reinoso
Publication: AArk Newsletter, June 2015

Puerto Rican Crested Toad (Peltophryne lemur) Husbandry Manual (English)
Puerto Rican Crested Toads, Peltophryne lemur are the only native species of toad found in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This is a medium sized toad (64 to 120 mm snout-vent length) with distinctive supraorbital crests and a prominent upturned nose.
Author: Andrew Lentini, Toronto Zoo
Publication: 2006/2007 update

Relating natural climate and phenology to captive husbandry in two midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans and A. cisternasii) from different climatic zones (English)
Captive husbandry and breeding may be pivotal to the successful conservation of many amphibian species, with captive stock providing research subjects, educational tools and animals for release into the wild. Husbandry protocols are missing for many species and sub-optimal for many more, which may limit the success of captive breeding attempts. It has been suggested that observations and environmental data taken from species in nature may be used to infer optimal captive conditions for amphibians. For species where data from the wild are not available, ‘analogue’, that is closely related but more accessible species, may be used as surrogates to inform captive husbandry to some degree. These hypotheses, although logically cogent, are not well tested in amphibians. In particular, the suitability of analogue species based on some knowledge of basic ecology and biology is frequently not assessed. We show that captive husbandry requirements and breeding stimuli correlate with field data and phenology in wild populations of the midwife toads Alytes obstetricans and A. cisternasii. In particular, the provision of hot summer temperatures following a cold brumation period of suitable duration may be important for breeding the western-central European A. obstetricans. Conversely, the Iberian A. cisternasii responds to hot summer temperatures with a rest period and reproduces in the cooler autumn and winter months. Brooding success was highly variable in A. obstetricans and smaller than records from wild toads, possibly due to the young age of breeding stock. Clutch size was similar in A. cisternasii to records from wild counterparts. Although specific breeding triggers and annual temperature requirements are likely to vary between localities for both species, these observations provide some useful data on the indoor breeding of both species. Our results also highlight the relevance of field data in designing captive husbandry protocols, while illustrating the inappropriateness of using one species as an analogue for the other in terms of husbandry requirements unless basic aspects of natural history, ecology and phenology can be shown to be broadly similar.
Authors: Christopher J. Michaels, Michael Fahrbach, Luke Harding, Zoe Bryant, Joseph-Smiley Capon-Doyle, Sebastian Grant, Iri Gill, Benjamin Tapley
Publication: Alytes 2016 | Volume 33 | Pages 2-11

Species profile: Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes) (English)
The Critically Endangered Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes) conforms to IUCN Red List, Amphibian Ark guidelines and EDGE assessments as a priority candidate for a conservation breeding program supported by a Taxon Management Plan. This population is under threat of extinction from the possible introduction of exotic fish, disease, invasive species and habitat modification. In 2008 a population census of X. longipes recognised the safety of removing founders to establish an international conservation breeding program.
Authors: Browne RK, Blackburn DC, and Doherty-Bone T
Publication: 2009

Substrate preference in the fossorial caecilian Microcaecila unicolor (Amphibia: Gymnophiona, Siphonopidae) (English)
Caecilians epitomise the complexities of maintaining poorly known amphibian taxa in captivity. Empirical data on even the most basic husbandry parameters are lacking for most species of caecilian, including the substrate used to maintain them. We used a simple choice chamber to compare two commonly used substrate types. Microcaecila unciolor were housed in individual choice chambers. On one side of the chamber we used Megazorb as a substrate and on the other we added moistened topsoil. Our results show that M. unicolor has a statistically significant preference for Megazorb as a diurnal resting site.
Authors: Whatley, C., B. Tapley, C.J. Michaels, Gower, D., and Wilkinson, M.
Publication: Herpetological Bulletin. 152. 18-20. 10.33256/hb152.1820 (2020)

Towards evidence-based husbandry for caecilian amphibians: Substrate preference in Geotrypetes seraphini (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae) (English)
Maintaining caecilians in captivity provides opportunities to study life-history, behaviour and reproductive biology and to investigate and to develop treatment protocols for amphibian chytridiomycosis. Few species of caecilians are maintained in captivity and little has been published on their husbandry. We present data on substrate preference in a group of eight Central African Geotrypetes seraphini (Duméril, 1859).
Authors: Benjamin Tapley, Zoe Bryant, Sebastian Grant, Grant Kother, Yedra Feltrer, Nic Masters, Taina Strike, Iri Gill, Mark Wilkinson & David J Gower
Publication: The Herpetological Bulletin 129, 2014: 15-18

Species-Specific Management and Action Plans

A survival blueprint for the Taylor’s Salamander, Ambystoma taylori (English)
Author: José Alfredo Hernández Díaz
Publication: Output from an EDGE of Existence fellowship, Zoological Society of London, London, UK, 2017

Action Plan for the Conservation of the Common Midwife Toad (Alytes obstetricans) in the European Union (English)
The common midwife toad,
Alytes obstetricans, is widespread in Europe but is currently facing population declines in several countries. This European Species Action Plan (EU SAP) has been prepared with the support of the European Commission.

The aim of this EU SAP is to support the development of national or local action plans and conservation measures as appropriate. The information and proposed conservation actions presented in this EU SAP have been prepared in consultation with a group of species experts from all countries in the midwife toad’s distribution range, as well as through a review of available literature.
Authors: Violeta Barrios, Concha Olmeda, Ernesto Ruiz (Atecma/N2K Group) (Compilers)
Publication: European Commission, 2012

Action plan for the conservation of the Laguna Blanca Frog (Atelognathus patagonicus) in Laguna Blanca National Park (Spanish)
Authors: Kacoliris, F.P., Cuello, M.E., Úbeda, C., Buria, L., Pastore, H., Rodrigo Calvo, y Chazarreta, L.
Publication: February 2020

Action plan for the conservation of the Rancho Grande harlequin frog (Atelopus cruciger) (English)
Authors: Margarita Lampo and Celsa J. Señaris
Publication: 2022

Action plan for the recovery of the Lake Pátzcuaro axolotl (Ambystoma dumerilii) (Spanish)
Authors: Biol Manuel Antonio Pérez Rodríguez, Coordinador de proyectos de Investigación
and Conservación de la Fauna, Zacango Ecological Park, Mexico.
Publication: February 2020

Action Program for the Conservation of Ambystoma Species (Spanish)
The Action Program for the Conservation of Ambystoma Species (PACE: Ambystoma) is developed within the framework of the Conservation of Species at Risk Program (Procer), a guiding document of the Directorate of Priority Species for Conservation (DEPC)
of the National Commission for Protected Natural Areas (Conanp). The PACE Ambystoma is part of the axis of Conservation and Management of Biodiversity, of the Strategy of the Conanp 2040 that is expressed in the strategic line as: Develop and implement action programs for the recovery of species at risk, linked to the Programs of Management of Anp and other instruments, with the participation of society. The foregoing constitutes a basic tool to fulfill the strategic objectives of the National Program of Natural Protected Areas, the Sectorial Program for the Environment and the National Development Plan.

Authors: Secretaría de Medio Ambiente and Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), Mexico.
Publication: 2018

Experiences in Biological Monitoring of Amphibians (Spanish)
The publication that we present to you is a collective learning and strengthening of amphibian biological monitoring techniques, which includes the knowledge and experience of herpetologists from Ecuador, together with the advice of colleagues from other countries. The objective of this document is to provide a tool that guides and supports the field work of biologists who follow the tracks of these unique and biodiverse species on the planet. On one hand, we explained the techniques used and that were useful
for us to monitor Atelopus, as a focal species, in areas of the Andes and the coast of Ecuador. On the other hand, we suggest the necessary and basic instruments and tools for amphibian monitoring and the recommended way to collect data of importance for future research.

Author: Fausto Siavichay Pesántez (editor)
Publication: Ministerio del Ambiente y Agua, 2020

Gazetted Biodiversity Management Plan for Pickersgill’s Reed Frog for Implementation (English)
Pickersgill’s Reed Frog, Hyperolius pickersgilli, is a small frog known only from limited and highly fragmented coastal wetland habitat in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. The species has been prioritised for conservation action due to its Red List status, endemism and ongoing deterioration in and loss of habitat. Without concerted proactive conservation intervention in the near future, it is highly likely that H. pickersgilli will become extinct. A Biodiversity Management Plan for H. pickersgilli is therefore warranted to formalise urgent, targeted conservation action for the species. Given that the majority of sites occur on privately or commercially-owned land, the participation of all relevant stakeholders in the management of habitat for the long-term protection of H. pickersgilli is crucial. There are at least 15 different stakeholder groups that are well placed to influence the long-term future of H. pickersgilli. The overall aim of the Biodiversity Management Plan for H. pickersgilli is to improve the conservation status of H. pickersgilli and secure its survival in perpetuity in the wild.
Authors: Jeanne Tarrant and Adrian John Armstrong.
Publication: June 2017

Harlequin Toad (Atelopus) Conservation Action Plan 2021 – 2041 (English)
With almost 100 species ranging across the Neotropics, from Costa Rica to Bolivia and east to French Guiana, harlequin toads (Atelopus spp.) are among the most threatened amphibians in the world. According to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, up to 90% of Atelopus species are threatened with extinction, with 40% of species thought to be possibly extinct in the wild and four species considered to be extinct. Over the past few decades, many Atelopus species have suffered severe population declines and extinctions throughout their range. The most likely primary threat driving harlequin toad declines is the lethal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Disease-induced declines may be further exacerbated by anthropogenic threats such as habitat loss and degradation, the effects of climate change, and the inherent risks of having very small distributions. As of 2021, approximately 40% of Atelopus species have disappeared from their known localities and have not been seen since the early 2000s despite efforts to find them. However, recent rediscoveries of Atelopus species in the wild, species that were previously thought to be lost, give us hope that there is still time to bring harlequin toads back from the brink of extinction. This Action Plan stems from the concern expressed by stakeholders regarding the lack of coordination and poor communication to effectively develop collaborative participatory conservation efforts to bring Atelopus species back from the brink of extinction.
Authors: Lina M. Valencia and Luis F. Marin da Fonte.
Publication: Atelopus Survival Initiative, 2021

Lake Titicaca’s Frog (Telmatobius culeus) Conservation Strategy Workshop (English)
The Denver Zoo has been committed, through its conservation program, to establishing a program that is to include field work, captivity handling, and environmental education about the Titicaca Water Frog, in order to get biological, habitat, and social and economic information of Lake Titicaca’s shoreline inhabitants, and to establish the bases for conservation of this species. With this aim, a workshop was promoted and held from December 13-15, 2010, at the Bioscience School of Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, in Puno, Peru. This workshop was actively attended by 39 people representing 15 institutions and organizations of Peru, Bolivia, the United States, and Costa Rica. The workshop was facilitated by Yolanda Matamoros of the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, of the Species Survival Commission of IUCN.
Authors: Reading, R.R., T.J. Weaver, J.R. Garcia, R. Elias Piperis, M.T. Herbert, C. Cortez, A. Muñoz, J.E. Rodríguez & Y. Matamoros (Eds.)
Publication: December 13-15, 2010, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group CBSG/(SSC/IUCN) Mesoamerica.

Long-Term Recovery Strategy for the Critically Endangered Mountain Chicken 2014-2034 (English)
The mountain chicken’s perilous situation has brought together the conservation efforts taking place in both Dominica and Montserrat to produce the unified strategy presented in this document for trying to reverse the trajectory of the species towards extinction. This Long-term Recovery Strategy will promote closer collaboration between our partners in Montserrat and further afield and encourage the exchange of ideas and methods we are developing to effect the recovery of this iconic species. The Strategy is aligned with the Dominica National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014-2020 which sets out a series of actions to minimise the loss of biodiversity in Dominica. The Strategy will help deliver this goal, supported by the crapaud captive breeding centre that has been established in our country.
Authors: Adams, S L, Morton, M N, Terry, A, Young, R P, Dawson, J, Martin, L, Sulton, M, Hudson, M, Cunningham, A, Garcia, G, Goetz, M, Lopez, J, Tapley, B, Burton, M and Gray, G.
Publication: 2014

Mantella cowanii Action Plan 2021-2025 (French)
The action plan for Mantella cowanii is the logical extension of the first action plan developed 10 years ago for a period of five years for the conservation of this species. The experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of this first plan, the gaps in fill and the negative development of the situation from the foreground, require revision of strategy. Thanks to the efforts and dedication of the participating scientists, lovers of Malagasy amphibians, this current action plan for the conservation of this magnificent species is more relevant, refined from the discussions during the 2018 workshop on this species, and from a paramount importance and its implementation is urgent on the scale of a few decades before the complete extinction of the species. It is important to emphasize that this species, which has almost disappeared from its habitat due to abusive commercial exploitation, frequently uses meadows and wooded savannah of the central highlands, an ecosystem previously considered of anthropogenic origin, therefore neglected with regard to integration into the network of areas protected, but it now appears that this is an incorrect generalization.
Editors: Andreone F., Andriantsimanarilafy R.R., Crottini A., Edmonds D., Garcia G., Hansen-Hendrikx C.M., Rakotoarison A., Razafimanahaka J.H.
Publication: November 2020

National Action Plan for Aromobates meridensis (Spanish)
Authors: Osmary Leal Peroza and Enrique La Marca, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela.
Publication: Mayo 2017

National Action Plan for Zippel’s Frog (Aromobates zippeli) (Spanish)
Author: Enrique La Marca, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela.
Publication: February 2018

National Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog, Philoria frosti (English)
This document constitutes the revision of the first Recovery Plan for the Baw Baw Frog (Philoria frosti) (Hollis 1997) in Australia. The plan assesses the performance of the previous plan, and considers the future conservation, management and research requirements for the species. It identifies conservation objectives, the actions to be taken to ensure the species’ long-term survival prospects across its distribution, and the parties responsible for their implementation. It also identifies criteria for which the success of implementation of actions will be assessed. The actions identified will be undertaken or managed by the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, Parks Victoria, Mt Baw Baw Alpine Resort Management Board, Amphibian Research Centre, James Cook University and selected external consultants. Successfully achieving the objectives of this Recovery Plan is subject to budgetary and other constraints affecting the parties involved. The plan may also be subject to amendments in the event of new information, or following recommended changes by the Baw Baw Frog Recovery Team.
Author: Hollis, G.J., Department of Sustainability and Environment, East Melbourne
Publication: 2011

National Recovery Plan for Booroolong Frog (Litoria booroolongensis) (English)
This document constitutes the national recovery plan for the booroolong frog (Litoria booroolongensis) in Australia. It identifies actions to be undertaken to ensure the long-term viability of the species in nature, and current stakeholders involved in this recovery program.
Author: Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW)
Publication: 2012

National Recovery Plan for Booroolong Frog (Litoria booroolongensis) (English)
This document constitutes the national recovery plan for the booroolong frog (Litoria booroolongensis) in Australia. It identifies actions to be undertaken to ensure the long-term viability of the species in nature, and current stakeholders involved in this recovery program.
Author: Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW)
Publication: 2012

National recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001-2005 (English)
This document is a five-year multi-species plan for the recovery of seven threatened stream frogs of south-east Queensland. The southern dayfrog and southern gastric-brooding frog declined and disappeared in the late 1970s to early 1980s. They have not been located since then, despite considerable survey effort. All other species are reported to have undergone population declines, although these are sometimes poorly quantified. One of these species, the cascade tree frog, declined markedly in Queensland in the late 1970s early 1980s. However, numbers have since shown some recovery. This recovery plan details the decline, possible threats, and current and proposed monitoring, research and management actions required for recovery of these species. The estimated total cost of implementing this plan is $1.3 million and involves the co-operative efforts of community groups, researchers, land managers and funding agencies.
Author: Harry Hines
Publication: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service and the South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team, 2002

National Recovery Plan for the Southern Corroboree Frog, Pseudophryne corroboree, and the Northern Corroboree Frog Pseudophryne pengilleyi (English)
This document constitutes the national recovery plan for the southern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree) and northern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne pengilleyi) in eastern Australia. It identifies actions to be undertaken to ensure the long-term viability of both species in nature, and current stakeholders involved in their recovery. This is the first national recovery plan for the northern corroboree frog and the second for the southern corroboree frog.
Author: David Hunter
Publication: Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW), 2012

National Recovery Plan for the Stuttering Frog, Mixophyes balbus (English)
This Recovery Plan summarises our current knowledge of the Stuttering Frog (Mixophyes balbus) in Australia, documents the conservation research and management actions undertaken to date, and identifies the actions required and parties responsible to ensure the ongoing viability of this species in the wild. Achieving the objectives of this Recovery Plan is subject to budgetary and other constraints affecting the parties involved. It is necessary that this Recovery Plan be viewed as dynamic, such that changes are made in the priority or structure of recovery actions as new information arises.
Authors: David Hunter and Graeme Gillespie
Publication: Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne, 2011

Native frog (Leiopelma spp.) recovery plan, 2013–2018 (English)
The Native Frog Recovery Group prepared this plan in conjunction with people interested in or affected by this plan, or with an expert knowledge of these species. Drafts have been sent to relevant DOC regions for comment and to people or organisations with an interest in conservation management of native frogs. Changes to the plan were made as a result of that consultation. The Recovery Group will review progress in implementation of this plan and will recommend to managers any changes that may be required in management.
Authors: Phillip J. Bishop, Lisa A. Daglish, Amanda J.M. Haigh, Leigh J. Marshall, Mandy D. Tocher and Kate L. McKenzie
Publication: Department of Conservation, December 2013

Plan de acción para la conservación de la Ranita del Valcheta (Pleurodema somuncurense), Meseta de Somuncura, Río Negro (Spanish)
El objetivo general de este documento es el de promover acciones que permitan asegurar la viabilidad poblacional a largo plazo de la Ranita del Valcheta, Pleurodema somuncurense, en estado silvestre. En términos amplios esto implica: a) la reducción de amenazas y por ende de riesgo asociado sobre las poblaciones locales existentes; b) la restauración de hábitats adecuados donde fuera necesario; c) la reintroducción y establecimiento de poblaciones locales viables en sitios de distribución histórica donde la especie se extinguió y, d) la restauración de corredores libres de amenazas que permitan el intercambio de individuos entre poblaciones locales.
Authors: Kacoliris FP, Velasco MA, Arellano ML, Martinez-Aguiree T, Zarini O, Calvo R, Berkunsky I
and Williams JD
Publication: 2018

Plan de Acción para la Conservación de las Ranas Arlequin (Atelopus) 2021 – 2041 (Spanish)
Desde el comienzo de nuestra conciencia colectiva sobre la disminución y extinción de anfibios a nivel mundial, el género neotropical
Atelopus se ha convertido en el emblema de la crisis de la biodiversidad de anfibios. Con casi 100 especies reconocidas para la ciencia y unas dos docenas de posibles especies candidatas adicionales, es un grupo de amplia distribución en las Américas, que se extiende hacia el norte desde Bolivia hasta Costa Rica y hacia el este hasta el Escudo Guayanés, ocupando arroyos, bosques húmedos de tierras bajas, bosques nublados y páramos andinos, desde el nivel del mar hasta muy por encima de la línea de árboles. Podría decirse que un importante hotspot de riqueza específica de Atelopus se encuentra en los Andes. Este Plan de Acción surge de la preocupación expresada por las partes interesadas respecto a la falta de coordinación y la escasa comunicación para desarrollar eficazmente esfuerzos de conservación colaborativos para sacar a las especies de Atelopus del borde de la extinción.

Authors: Lina M. Valencia and Luis F. Marin da Fonte.
Publication: ) Iniciativa de Supervivencia Atelopus, 2021

Plan de Acción para la Conservación del Ajolote de Alchichica (Ambystoma taylori) (Spanish)
Author: José Alfredo Hernández Díaz
Publication: A product of the EDGE of Existence, Zoological Society of London grant program, 2020

Plan de Acción por Gastrotheca gracilis (Spanish)
Authors: Mauricio Sebastián Akmentins and Martín Boullhesen
Publication: April 2020

Plano Estratégico de Conservação de Anfíbios (PECAn): Perereca-pintada (Nyctimantis pomba) (Portuguese) // Action Plan for Nyctimantis pomba in Brazil, 2023
Authors: Amphibian Specialist Group of Brazil, ASG Brazil/IUCN SSC
Publication: May 2023

Platymantis insulatus Action Plan (English)
Project Palaka is the first ex situ amphibian conservation project in the Philippines. Our goal is to establish assurance colonies of at-risk populations and species of native Philippines amphibians, in partnership with the University of the Philippines, Los Baños. This action plan provides detail on establishing a captive colony of the critically endangered Platymantis insulatus.
Authors: Norman Greenhawk and Dr. Leticia Espiritu-Afuang
Publication: 2019

Pool Frog Species Action Plan (English)
This document outlines the actions required to conserve the pool frog (Pelophylax (Rana) lessonae) in Britain and provides a framework for all conservation work. More detail of each action is provided in the implementation guide. Each action has been assigned the appropriate level for implementation i.e. United Kingdom, country, region or local. Key actions have been identified through a ‘signposting’ exercise; these statements are shown in two shades of green and the corresponding signposted actions are marked with a similarly coloured signpost symbol.
Author: Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Trust
Publication: July 2009

Recovery Plan for the Central California Distinct Population Segment of the California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense) (English)
The goal of this recovery plan is to reduce the threats to the Central California tiger salamander to ensure its long-term viability in the wild and allow for its removal from the list of threatened and endangered species. The strategy to recover the Central California tiger salamander focuses on alleviating the threat of habitat loss and fragmentation in order to increase population resiliency (ensure each population is sufficiently large to withstand stochastic events), redundancy (ensure a sufficient number of populations to provide a margin of safety for the species to withstand catastrophic events), and representation (conserve the breadth of the genetic makeup of the species to conserve its adaptive capabilities). Recovery of this species can be achieved by addressing the conservation of remaining aquatic and upland habitat that provides essential connectivity, reduces fragmentation, and sufficiently buffers against encroaching development and intensive agricultural land uses.
Author: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Publication: 2017

Recovery Plan for the Southern California Distinct Population Segment of the Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (Rana muscosa) (English)
This document presents the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s (Service) plan for the conservation and recovery of the southern California distinct population segment of mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa). The goal of this recovery plan is to provide guidance on how to control or ameliorate impacts from current threats to the southern Rana muscosa such that the taxon no longer requires protections afforded by the Act and therefore, warrants delisting.
Author: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Publication: 2018

Recovery Implementation Strategy for the Southern California Distinct Population Segment of the Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (Rana muscosa) (English)
This Recovery Implementation Strategy specifies the activities necessary to fully implement the recovery actions that are specified in the Recovery Plan for the Southern California Distinct Population Segment of the Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (Rana muscosa) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) 2018).
Author: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Publication: 2018

Report from the workshop of the New Mantella cowanii Action Plan 2021-2025 (English)
The Harlequin mantella, Mantella cowanii, is likely one of the most threatened Malagasy amphibians. This striking iconic Mantella species has a very scattered range, and none of its known populations is currently included in any protected area. Until 2003 has been collected unsustainably for the pet-trade. This workshop and consequent new action plan summarises the current state of knowledge of the Mantella cowanii population status, its taxonomy and ecology, and of the threats facing it, and describes the institutional framework for conservation management in Madagascar. It lists the key stakeholders in the action plan, and the vision, goals, objectives, and activities.
Authors: Garcia, G, Andreone, F., Andriantsimanarilafy, R.R., Crotini, A., Bland, A., Candace, M. H-H., Edmonds, D., Rakotonanahary, T. F., Ndriantsoa, S. H & Rajotoarison, A. (eds.)
Publication: 2020

Species Action Plan for Atelopus chrysocorallus (English)
Author: Enrique La Marca, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela.
Publication: March 2024

Species Action Plan for Aromobates duranti (Spanish)
Author: Enrique La Marca, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela.
Publication: May 2019

Species Action Plan for Atelopus oxyrhynchus (English)
Author: Enrique La Marca, REVA (Rescue of Venezuelan Endangered Species), Venezuela.
Publication: February 2021

Species Action Plan for La Banderita Marsupial Frog Gastrotheca gracilis (English)
Authors: Mauricio Sebastián Akmentins and Martín Boullhesen
Publication: April 2020

Species Action Plan for Leptodactylus sp. (Sapito silbador de Mérida) (Spanish)
Author: Enrique La Marca, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela.
Publication: May 2017

Species Conservation Strategy for Mantella aurantiaca (The Golden Mantella Frog), 2017-2021 (English)
The first conservation strategy for Mantella aurantiaca was published in 2010 and implemented between 2011 and 2015. The final evaluation was carried out in October 2016 to measure the achievements against the set objectives. This assessment will allow the update of the conservation strategy to be released for the next five years (2017-2021). The new strategy contains updates on the status of the species, including conservation management and threat analysis. This strategy also contains new guidelines for conservation.
Authors: Rakotondrasoa E.F., Andriantsimanarilafy R. R., Andriafidison D., Razafimanahaka H.J., Razafindraibe P., Rabesihanaka S., Robsomanitrandrasana E., Randrianizahana H., Rakotondratsimba G., Ranjanaharisoa F., Rabemanajara F., Randrianantoandro C.J., Ndriamiary J.N., Rakotoarisoa J.Cl., Randrianarisoa A.L.
Publication: Ministère de l’Environnement et des Forêts, 2017

Species Conservation Strategy for Mantella aurantiaca (The Golden Mantella Frog), 2011-2015 (English)
Madagasikara Voakajy initiated a conservation and sustainable management programme for Mantella aurantiaca and its habitats, which started with a scientific study in 2007 (Randrianavelona et al. 2010). In 2008, Conservation International funded Madagasikara Voakajy, with a Conservation Action Grant, to promote the integration of the Mangabe-Sahasarotra-Ranomena forest block into the System of Protected Areas of Madagascar (SAPM) to protect M. aurantiaca and its habitats. Following a workshop with the participation of all relevant stakeholders and a few work post-workshops sessions, the final product consists of: a complete review of M. aurantiaca status, a vision, five main goals, twelve specific goals, seven objectives, sixteen specific objectives and fifty actions to be undertaken over the next five years.
Authors: Randrianavelona R., Randrianantoandro J. C., Rabibisoa N., Randrianasolo H., Rabesihanaka S., Randriamahaleo S. and Jenkins R. K. B.
Publication: Ministère de l’Environnement et des Forêts, 2011

Species Management Guidelines for Mountain Chicken, Leptodactylus fallax (English)
Author: Richard Gibson, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Publication: July 2001

Taller para Establecer una Estrategia de Conservación de la de Rana de Junín (Telmatobius macrostomus) (Spanish)
En el año 2014, el SERNANP realizó excursiones para monitorear Telmatobius macrostomus en cinco riachuelos afluentes del Lago Junín y se encontró seis renacuajos en dos riachuelos en Ondores, un adulto en Uco, otro adulto en Chuiroc y ningún espécimen en Huarmipuquio debido a la contaminación causada por el lavado de ropa que se hace en este lugar.
Authors: Medrano, R., Elías, R., Behmke, S., Herbert, M., Rodríguez, J.E. & Matamoros, Y. (eds.)
Publication: Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN/CBSG Mesoamerica), 2015

Taxon Management Plan – Lake Oku Clawed Frog (Xenopus longipes)  (English)
Authors: Robert Browne, Thomas Doherty-Bone, David Blackburn
Publication: 2nd Draft 15/03/2009

Taxon Management Plan – Mantella aurantiaca (English)
Authors: F. Andreone, R. Gibson, F. Mattioli
Publication: 2nd draft, May 2007

Taxon Management Plan – Neurergus microspilotus (English)
Authors: Robert Browne and Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani
Publication: September 2009

Taxon Management Plan – Ranitomeya (Dendrobates) imitator (English)
Author: Tree Walkers International

Taxon Management Plan: Oregon Spotted Frog, Rana pretiosa (English)
Author: Karen Goodrowe Beck
Publication: March 2009

White-bellied and Orange-bellied Frogs (Geocrinia alba and Geocrinia vitellina) Recovery Plan (English)
The white-bellied frog (Geocrinia alba) and orange-bellied frog (Geocrinia vitellina) were discovered in 1983 and described in 1989 (Wardell-Johnson & Roberts 1989) with an extended description provided in 1990 (Roberts et al. 1990). A Recovery Plan was prepared in 1995 (Wardell-Johnson et al. 1995) and this plan constitutes a review of the recovery actions from that plan and an update and development of new recovery actions for the next 10 years, based on updated knowledge and information. This document constitutes a formal recovery plan for these two Geocrinia species and includes distribution, salient aspects of ecology and biology, threatening processes and decline, and presents the actions, and associated costs, necessary to recover these species.
Author: Department of Parks and Wildlife
Publication: May 2015

Wyoming Toad Bufo hemiophrys baxteri now known as Anaxyrus baxteri Revised Recovery Plan, May 2015 (English)
This recovery plan’s structure articulates both short and long-term strategies that together comprise the conditions under which the Wyoming toad may be delisted. An adaptive management approach, which allows for the continual inclusion of updated research and information, will be the main strategy guiding the management of the species. The captive program maximizes genetic diversity in its annual breeding and continuously develops husbandry strategies to maximize the health of captive populations.
Author: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Publication: 2015

Yellow-spotted Bell Frog (Litoria castanea) and Peppered Frog (Litoria piperata) Recovery Plan (English)
The Yellow-spotted Bell Frog and the Peppered Tree Frog are two frog species endemic to the highlands and tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. The Yellow-spotted Bell Frog also occurs in the Australian Capital Territory. Neither species has been definitely recorded in the wild since the mid 1970s, and concerns are held for their continued survival. In a formal response to these concerns, both species have been listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (TSC Act). The aim of this recovery plan is to assist in returning these two species to a position of viability in nature.
Author: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Publication: 20 February 2004

Water and Water Quality

A Water Quality Annotated Bibliography for Amphibians (English)
Author: Compiled by R. Andrew Odum

Amphibian water quality: approaches to an essential environmental parameter (English)
Appropriate water quality is essential for maintaining and breeding amphibians in captivity. Aquatic systems that maintain water quality have been employed for many years in the aquaculture and aquarium industries. These techniques are now more commonly being utilized for amphibians. Using information from the work of the authors and published literature on amphibians and fish, benchmarks are provided for common water-quality parameters for amphibians.
Authors: R. A. Odum & K. C. Zippel
Publication: Int. Zoo Yb. (2008) 42: 40–52

Interactions of pH, Carbon Dioxide, Alkalinity and Hardness in Fish Ponds (English)
Water quality in fish ponds is affected by the interactions of several chemical components. Carbon dioxide, pH, alkalinity and hardness are interrelated and can have profound effects on pond productivity, the level of stress and fish health, oxygen availability and the toxicity of ammonia as well as that of certain metals. Most features of water quality are not constant.
Authors: William A. Wurts and Robert M. Durborow
Publication: SRAC Publication No. 464, December 1992

Managing water quality for amphibians in captivity (English)
Author: Kay Bradfield, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Publication: March 2010

The Effects of Nitrite on Behavior and Metamorphosis in Cascades Frogs (Rana cascadae) (English)
Amphibian metamorphosis is a period of drastic morphologic reorganization, during which larvae experience a decrease in locomotor ability and are more vulnerable to predation. Our results indicate that exposure to sublethal concentrations of nitrite in the water induces behavioral and morphologic changes in the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae).
Authors: Adolfo Marco and Andrew R. Blaustein
Publication: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 946–949, 1999

Water Quality (English)
With its dual life cycle and anamniotic egg, the amphibian is more closely bound to a continuous supply of water than most other terrestrial vertebrate groups . This supply of water must meet certain minimal requirements to maintain the health and normal behavior of the organism. The purpose of this monograph is to provide a basic understanding of water quality for amphibian keeper. This paper is not a complete representation of the exact state-of-the-art of aquaculture; instead, the authors hope to convey the principles that govern water quality management.
Authors: R Andrew Odum and Kevin Zippel
Publication: January 2011

Workshop Presentations

Biosecurity (PowerPoint presentation) (English)
Author: Michael McFadden, Taronga Zoo

Biosecurity (presentation hand-outs) (English)
Author: Michael McFadden, Taronga Zoo

Chytridiomycosis (PowerPoint presentation) (English)
Author: Michael McFadden, Taronga Zoo

Chytridiomycosis (presentation hand-outs) (English)
Author: Michael McFadden, Taronga Zoo

Larval Amphibian Ecology (PowerPoint presentation) (English)
Author: Jennifer Pramuk, Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservation Society

Larval Amphibian Ecology (presentation hand-outs) (English)
Author: Jennifer Pramuk, Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservation Society

Techniques for gender determination & individual identification in amphibians (PowerPoint presentation) (English)
Authors: Gerardo Garcia & Kay Bradfield, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

Techniques for gender determination & individual identification in amphibians (presentation hand-outs) (English)
Authors: Gerardo Garcia & Kay Bradfield, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust

The Principle of Amphibian Husbandry (PowerPoint presentation) (English)
Author: R Andrew Odum, Toledo Zoo

The Principle of Amphibian Husbandry (presentation hand-outs) (English)
Author: R Andrew Odum, Toledo Zoo